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        <h1 class="text-center"><strong>Francis II Rákóczi</strong></h1>
        <h2 class="text-center">(1676 - 1735)</h2>
        <h3 div class="mx-auto d-block caption text-left"><em>Leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11</em></h3>
        <img class="img-fluid mx-auto d-block" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/M%C3%A1nyoki%2C_%C3%81dam_-_Portrait_of_Prince_Ferenc_R%C3%A1k%C3%B3czi_II_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg" alt="problem with source" width="70%" height="auto">
          <div class="caption text-left serif">Ádám Mányoki: Portrait of Prince Francis Rákóczi II, 1724, Oil on canvas, 77,5 x 62,5 cm, Magyar Nemzeti Galéria, Budapest</div>
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        <h1 class="listHeader Cinzel"><b>A short summary of his life</b></h1>
        
<ul class="list">
  
  <li><b>1676</b> - Born in Borsi, Royal Hungary
(now Borša, Slovakia). He was the third of three children born to Francis I Rákóczi, elected ruling prince of Transylvania, and Zrínyi Ilona, who was the daughter of Zrínyi Péter, Ban of Croatia, and niece of the poet Zrínyi Miklós. His father dies within 4 months.</li>
  
  <li><b>1688</b> - Falls again - with his sister, Julianna - under the guardianship of Leopold I. Enrolles in a Jesuit college in Neuhaus, Bohemia. The last time she sees his mother.</li>
  
  <li><b>1694</b> - Marriage to 15-year-old Princess Amelia, a daughter of Charles, Landgrave of Hesse-Wanfried and a descendant of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary. The couple moves to the Rákóczi castle at Sárospatak, where Rákóczi begins to manage his properties.</li>
  
  <li><b>1699</b> - The Treaty of Karlóca (Karlowitz), concluding the Austro-Turkish War <b>1683-1697</b> forces Imre Thököly and Ilona Zrínyi into exile. Her mother married  the Protestant aristocrat, who led a failed revolt against the Habsburgs in <b>1677</b>.</li>
  
  <li><b>1700</b> - Befriends Count Miklós Bercsényi with whom  he establishes contact with France to support the cause of Hungarian independence.</li>
  
  <li><b>1703</b> Kuruc forces begin a new uprising in Munkács (now Mukachevo, Ukraine), and Rákóczi is asked to head it. He decides to invest his energies in a war of national liberation, and accepts. Thus, the Rákóczi Uprising starts.</li>
  
  <li><b>1704</b> - Victory of Austrian and English forces against a combined French-Bavarian army in the Battle of Blenheim, preventes the union of Rákóczi’s forces with their French-Bavarian allies, thus providing an advantage to the Austrian forces. Also, the same year Francis II Rákóczi Rákóczi is elected Prince of Transylvania by the Magyar, Székely and Saxon estates.</li>
  
  <li><b>1705</b> - The war reaches a stand-off shortly after Leopold I dies.</li>
  
  <li><b>1706</b> - As a result of the stand-off, a three-month armistice is signed followed by intensive peace efforts.
    
  <li><b>1707</b> - During the Great Northern War he is one of the candidates to the throne of Poland, supported by Elżbieta Sieniawska. She was considered the most powerful woman in the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth and called the "uncrowned Queen of Poland".</li>
  
  <li><b>1708</b> - At the Battle of Trencsén (now Trenčín, Slovakia) Rákóczi’s horse stumbles, and he falls to the ground, which knockes him unconscious. The Kuruc forces think him dead and flee. This defeat is fatal for the uprising.</li>
  
  <li><b>1711</b> -  Not trusting the word of János Pálffy, who iss the Emperor’s envoy charged with negotiations with the rebels, the Prince leaves the Kingdom of Hungary for Poland. Meets Peter the Great, who still was a possible source of help. Before leaving he gave Sándor Károlyi permission to enter into peace negotiations with the Court, which was represented by János Pálffy, former commander-in-chief of the Habsburg forces and an ardent loyalist but a decent man. While Rákóczi is in Poland, Emperor Joseph I dies suddenly. Nevertheless, negotiations between Károlyi and Pálffy leads to an agreement.</li>
  
  <li><b>1713</b> - Traveles with his closest friends, including Count Miklós Bercsényi, to France. In Paris he enjoyes the hospitality of Louis XIV.</li>
  
  <li><b>1715</b> - After the Sun King's death Rákóczi, bored with life in high society, leaves Paris to take up residence in a monastery of Camaldulian brothers at Gros-Bois where he spends most of his time in religious contemplation and studies - and gardening.
  
  <li><b>1717</b> - The outbreak of the Austrian-Turkish war changes Rákóczi's life abruptly, for the Turkish Sultan secretly offeres him an alliance if he would assist the Turks in fighting the Habsburgs. Driven by a resurgence of hope, Rákóczi leaves the serenity of the Gros-Bois monastery to join the Sultan in Constantinople. His high hopes, however turnes into deep disappointment when he learnes upon his arrival that the Turkish army has suffered a devastating defeat at the hands of Prince Eugen Savoy and Bán János Pálffy, and that peace negotiations were already in progress.</li>
  
  <li><b>1718</b> - The Ottoman Empire signed the Peace Treaty of Passarowitz with Austria (after yet another war). Among its provisions is the refusal of the Turks to extradite the exiled Hungarians. Two years later, the Austrian envoy requestes that the exiles be turned over, but the Sultan refused as a matter of honour. Rákóczi and his entourage are settled in the town of Tekirdağ, Ottoman Empire (Rodostó in Hungarian). A large Hungarian colony grows up around this town Bercsényi, Count Simon Forgách, Count Antal Esterházy, Count Mihály Csáky, Miklós Sibrik, Zsigmond Zay, the two Pápays, and Colonel Ádám Jávorka were among many who settles there.</li>
  
  <li><b>1735</b> - It was in Rodostó in the Ottoman Empire that Rákóczi spends the rest of his life in an ever-shrinking circle of loyal friends who still consider and treat him as the Prince of Hungary. In his will Rákóczi asked that his heart be sent to the monastery of Camaldulian brothers in Gros-Bois while the rest of his remains be interred with those of his mother, Ilona Zrínyi, who had also died in Turkish exile decades before. He dies in <b>1735</b> at the age of sixty.</li>
 
</ul>
        <p> Listen <a target="blank" href="http://ks.petruccimusiclibrary.org/files/imglnks/usimg/6/61/IMSLP77090-PMLP24627-dso20080209-09-berlioz-marche-hongroise_vbr.mp3" >here</a> to the "Rákóczi March" (Hungarian: Rákóczi-induló), sometimes known as the "Hungarian March" was the unofficial state anthem of Hungary before Ferenc Kölcsey wrote the "Himnusz" which is today the official national anthem of Hungary. This version is what Hector Berlioz included in his composition "La Damnation de Faust" in 1846. Also, Franz Liszt wrote a number of arrangements, including his "Hungarian Rhapsody No. 15", based on the theme.</p>      
        
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