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HTML

              
                <main>
  <h1>Performant Animations</h1>
  <p>Favour using the properties <code>transform</code> and <code>opacity</code> for your animations. You will be surprised by how much you can achieve with only these 2 properties. Below, I demonstrate some of the actions you can do with these properties.</p>
  <h2>Size</h2>
  <div class="item">
    <h3>Width</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container">
        <div class="rect widen"></div>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        Changing width of a rectangle
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p>You can change the width of an element with <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/scaleX()"><code>transform: scaleX()</code></a>.</p>
    <pre>
<code class="language-css">
.widen {
	animation: widen 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes widen {
	to {
		transform: scaleX(2);
	}
}
</code></pre>
    <p>You can use <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/scale()"><code>transform: scale()</code></a> if you wish to change the width and height together.</p>
  </div>
  <div class="item">
    <h3>Height</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container">
        <div class="rect heighten"></div>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        Changing height of a rectangle.
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p>You can change the height of an element with
      <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/scaleY()"><code>transform: scaleY()</code></a>.
    </p>
    <pre>
<code class="language-css">
.heighten {
	animation: heighten linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes heighten {
	to {
		transform: scaleY(2);
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
    <p>You can use <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/scale()"><code>transform: scale()</code></a> if you wish to change the width and height together.</p>
  </div>
  <hr>
  <h2>Rotation</h2>
  <div class="item">
    <h3>Directional Rotation</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container rotation">
        <svg class="arrow arrowRight rotate" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 24 24">
          <path d="M0 0h24v24H0z" fill="none" />
          <path d="M16.01 11H4v2h12.01v3L20 12l-3.99-4z" />
        </svg>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        Rotating right arrow clockwise 90 degrees.
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p>You can change the direction of an element with <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/rotate()"><code>transform: rotate()</code></a>.</p>
    <pre>
<code class="language-css">
.rotate {
	animation: rotate linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes rotate {
	to {
		transform: rotate(90deg);
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
  </div>
  <div class="item rotation">
    <h3>Sideways Rotation</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container">
        <svg class="arrow arrowRight rotateSideways" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 24 24">
          <path d="M0 0h24v24H0z" fill="none" />
          <path d="M16.01 11H4v2h12.01v3L20 12l-3.99-4z" />
        </svg>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        This is a right arrow being rotated 360 degrees on Y axis.
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <pre>
<code class="language-css">
.rotateSideways {
	animation: rotateSideways linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes rotateSideways {
	to {
		transform: rotateY(360deg);
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
    <p>This was counter-intuitive for me when I was began learning transformations. I thought it would be <code>rotateX()</code> to get this effect.</p>
  </div>
  <div class="item">
    <h3>Lengthways Rotation</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container rotation">
        <svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 24 24" class="arrowUp arrow rotateLengthways">
          <path d="M0 0h24v24H0V0z" fill="none" />
          <path d="M4 12l1.41 1.41L11 7.83V20h2V7.83l5.58 5.59L20 12l-8-8-8 8z" />
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        This is an up arrow being rotated 360 degrees on the X axis.
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p>You can rotate an element lengthways with
      <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/rotateX()"><code>transform:rotateX()</code></a>.
    </p>
    <pre>
<code class="language-css">
.rotateLengthways {
	animation: rotateLengthways linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes rotateLengthways {
	to {
		transform: rotateX(360deg);
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
    <p>This was counter-intuitive for me when I was began learning transformations. I thought it would be <code>rotateY()</code> to get this effect.</p>
  </div>
  <hr>
  <h2>Movement</h2>
  <div class="item">
    <h3>Horizontal Movement</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container">
        <svg class="arrow arrowRight moveHorizontal" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 24 24">
          <path d="M0 0h24v24H0z" fill="none" />
          <path d="M16.01 11H4v2h12.01v3L20 12l-3.99-4z" />
        </svg>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        Moving right arrow horizontally.
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p>You can move an element horizontally with <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/translateX"><code>transform:translateX()</code></a>.</p>
    <pre>
			<code class="language-css">
.moveHorizontal {
	animation: moveHorizontal linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes moveHorizontal {
	to {
		transform: translateX(150%);
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
  </div>
  <div class="item">
    <h3>Vertical Movement</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container">
        <svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 24 24" class="arrowUp arrow moveVertical">
          <path d="M0 0h24v24H0V0z" fill="none" />
          <path d="M4 12l1.41 1.41L11 7.83V20h2V7.83l5.58 5.59L20 12l-8-8-8 8z" />
        </svg>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        Moving up arrow vertically.
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p>You can move an element vertically with <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/translateY"><code>transform:translateY()</code></a></p>
    <pre>
			<code class="language-css">
.moveVertical {
	animation: moveVertical linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes moveVertical {
	to {
		transform: translateY(30px);
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
  </div>
  <div class="item">
    <h3>Diagonal Movement</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container">
        <svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 24 24" class="arrowUp arrow moveDiagonally1">
          <path d="M0 0h24v24H0V0z" fill="none" />
          <path d="M4 12l1.41 1.41L11 7.83V20h2V7.83l5.58 5.59L20 12l-8-8-8 8z" />
        </svg>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        Moving right arrow diagonally (north-east).
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p> You can move an element direction diagonally by using <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/translate"><code>transform:translate()</code></a> to move the element horizontally and vertically at the same time. </p>
    <pre>
<code class="language-css">
.moveDiagonally1 {
	animation: moveDiagonally1 linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes moveDiagonally1 {
	to {
		transform: translate(-50%, 50%);
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
    <figure>
      <div class="container">
        <svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 24 24" class="arrowUp arrow moveDiagonally2">
          <path d="M0 0h24v24H0V0z" fill="none" />
          <path d="M4 12l1.41 1.41L11 7.83V20h2V7.83l5.58 5.59L20 12l-8-8-8 8z" />
        </svg>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        Rotating and moving right arrow diagonally (north-east)</code>.
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p>If you want the element to face in the direction of movement, you need to rotate the element and use <code>translate()</code> to move it in the correct direction.</p>
    <p>The order of transformations is important, <code>transform:rotate() translate()</code> and <code>transform:translate() rotate()</code> give different results.</p>
    <pre>
			<code class="language-css">
.moveDiagonally2 {
	animation: moveDiagonally2 linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes moveDiagonally2 {
	0% {
		transform: rotate(45deg) translateY(0);
	}
	100% {
		transform: rotate(45deg) translateY(105%);
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
  </div>
  <div class="item">
    <h3>Moving Closer/Further Away</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container">
        <svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 24 24" class="train scale">
          <path d="M0 0h24v24H0V0z" fill="none" />
          <path d="M12 2c-4 0-8 .5-8 4v9.5C4 17.43 5.57 19 7.5 19L6 20.5v.5h2.23l2-2H14l2 2h2v-.5L16.5 19c1.93 0 3.5-1.57 3.5-3.5V6c0-3.5-3.58-4-8-4zM7.5 17c-.83 0-1.5-.67-1.5-1.5S6.67 14 7.5 14s1.5.67 1.5 1.5S8.33 17 7.5 17zm3.5-7H6V6h5v4zm2 0V6h5v4h-5zm3.5 7c-.83 0-1.5-.67-1.5-1.5s.67-1.5 1.5-1.5 1.5.67 1.5 1.5-.67 1.5-1.5 1.5z" />
        </svg>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        Moving train closer and further away.
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p>You can use <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/scale()"><code>transform: scale()</code></a> or <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/translateZ()"><code>transform: translateZ()</code></a>.</p>
    <p>Using <code>transform: scale()</code> is shrinking or enlarging an element. It is kind of cheating! It works well to create a perception of depth for simple movement e.g. straight lines.</p>
    <pre>
<code class="language-css">
.scale {
	animation: scale linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes scale {
	to {
			transform: scale(0);
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
    <p>For more complex movements, you need to make a translation along the Z-axis. The Z-axis is the depth dimension. Using <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function/translate3D()"><code>transform: translate3d()</code></a> will give you complete control of moving an element in all 3 dimensions.</p>
  </div>
  <hr>
  <h2>Visibility</h2>
  <div class="item">
    <h3>Hide/Show</h3>
    <figure>
      <div class="container">
        <div class="rect visibility"></div>
      </div>
      <figcaption>
        Hiding/showing rectangle.
      </figcaption>
    </figure>
    <p>Use <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/opacity"><code>opacity</code></a> to control visibility of an element. You can use it for toggling between states and flashing objects at a particular frequency.</p>
    <pre>
	<code class="language-css">
.visibility {
	animation: visibility linear 1s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes visibility {
	to {
		opacity: 0;
	}
}
</code>
</pre>
  </div>
</main>
              
            
!

CSS

              
                :root {
  --element-color: rgb(255, 0, 191);
  --max-width: 600px;
}

html {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

body {
  background-color: black;
  color: white;
  font-family: "Lucida Sans", "Lucida Sans Regular", "Lucida Grande",
    "Lucida Sans Unicode", Geneva, Verdana, sans-serif;
}

main {
  padding: 1rem 0.25rem;
  max-width: var(--max-width);
  margin: 0 auto;
}

a {
  color: var(--element-color);
  text-decoration: none;
}

h1,
h2,
h3 {
  width: 100%;
  text-align: center;
}

h2 {
  text-decoration: underline;
}

hr {
  color: white;
}

.item {
  display: grid;
  width: 100%;
  max-width: var(--max-width);
  row-gap: 1rem;
  margin: 1rem auto;
}

figure {
  margin: 0 5px;
}

figcaption {
  margin-top: 0.5rem;
  text-align: center;
  font-size: 0.75rem;
}

pre[class*="language-"] {
  overflow: auto;
  margin: 0 5px;
}

.container {
  height: 100px;
  display: flex;
  justify-content: center;
  align-items: center;
  background-color: rgb(0, 53, 199);
  box-shadow: rgba(88, 188, 255, 0.5) 0 0 2px 2px;
}

/* animated elements */
.rect {
  width: 60px;
  height: 30px;
  background-color: var(--element-color);
  box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3) 0 0 2px 1px;
}

svg {
  fill: var(--element-color);
}

.arrow,
.train {
  width: 60px;
}

.arrowUp {
  width: 40px;
}

@media screen and (min-width: 600px) {
}

/* animations */
.widen {
  animation: widen 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes widen {
  to {
    transform: scaleX(2);
  }
}

.heighten {
  animation: heighten linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes heighten {
  to {
    transform: scaleY(2);
  }
}

.rotate {
  animation: rotate linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes rotate {
  to {
    transform: rotate(90deg);
  }
}

.rotateSideways {
  animation: rotateSideways linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes rotateSideways {
  to {
    transform: rotateY(360deg);
  }
}

.rotateLengthways {
  animation: rotateLengthways linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes rotateLengthways {
  to {
    transform: rotateX(360deg);
  }
}

.moveHorizontal {
  animation: moveHorizontal linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes moveHorizontal {
  to {
    transform: translateX(150%);
  }
}

.moveVertical {
  animation: moveVertical linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes moveVertical {
  to {
    transform: translateY(30px);
  }
}

.moveDiagonally1 {
  animation: moveDiagonally1 linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes moveDiagonally1 {
  to {
    transform: translate(-50%, 50%);
  }
}

.moveDiagonally2 {
  animation: moveDiagonally2 linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes moveDiagonally2 {
  0% {
    transform: rotate(45deg) translateY(0);
  }
  100% {
    transform: rotate(45deg) translateY(105%);
  }
}

.scale {
  animation: scale linear 2s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes scale {
  to {
    transform: scale(0);
  }
}

.visibility {
  animation: visibility linear 1s infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes visibility {
  to {
    opacity: 0;
  }
}

              
            
!

JS

              
                
              
            
!
999px

Console