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Here you can Sed posuere consectetur est at lobortis. Donec ullamcorper nulla non metus auctor fringilla. Maecenas sed diam eget risus varius blandit sit amet non magna. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Praesent commodo cursus magna, vel scelerisque nisl consectetur et.

  <p> The HTML "ruby" element represents a ruby annotation. Ruby annotations are for showing pronunciation of East Asian characters.</p>

  漢 <rp>(</rp><rt>Kan</rt><rp>)</rp>
  字 <rp>(</rp><rt>ji</rt><rp>)</rp>
  明日 <rp>(</rp><rt>Ashita</rt><rp>)</rp>


  <rt>World</rt> <rt>Wide</rt> <rt>Web</rt>

  <rb>Aerith</rb><rb> </rb><rb>Gainsboro</rb>


  屋<rt>おく</rt>  内<rt>ない</rt>
  禁<rt>きん</rt>  煙<rt>えん</rt>

<ruby><rb>one</rb> <rb>two</rb> <rt>1</rt> <rt>2</rt></ruby>
<ruby style="ruby-merge:collapse"><rb>無<rb>常<rt>む<rt>じょう</ruby>
              $pri: #666;
$pri-lt: lighten($pri, 20%);
body {
  background-color: #444;
  font-family: Arial;
div {
  background-color: $pri;
  margin: 1em 0 1.5em;
  width: 30em;
  font-size: 1.2rem;
  padding: 1.3rem;
  border: 5px solid $pri-lt;
  line-height: 1.3em;
  color: $pri-lt;
.ruby { display: ruby; }
ruby {
  display: ruby;
  background-color: $pri;
  width: 20em;
  font-size: 1.5rem;
  padding: 1.3rem;
  border: 5px solid $pri-lt;
  line-height: 1.3em;
  color: $pri-lt;
Default states of ruby elements:
ruby { display: ruby; }
rb   { display: ruby-base; white-space: nowrap; }
rp   { display: none; }
rt   { display: ruby-text; white-space: nowrap; font-size: 50%; }
rbc  { display: ruby-base-container; }
rtc  { display: ruby-text-container; }
ruby, rb, rt, rbc, rtc { unicode-bidi: isolate; } 

Authors should not use the above rules; a UA that supports ruby layout should provide these by default.

Unfortunately, because Selectors cannot match against text nodes, it’s not possible with CSS to express rules that will automatically and correctly add parentheses to unparenthesized ruby annotations in HTML. (This is because HTML ruby allows implying the ruby base from raw text, without a corresponding element.) However, these rules will handle cases where either <rb> or <rtc> is used rigorously.

/* Parens around <rtc> */
rtc::before { content: "("; }
rtc::after  { content: ")"; }

/* Parens before first <rt> not inside <rtc> */
rb  + rt::before,
rtc + rt::before { content: "("; }

/* Parens after <rt> not inside <rtc> */
rb ~ rt:last-child::after,
rt + rb::before  { content: ")"; }
rt + rtc::before { content: ")("; }

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