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              <div class="scene">
  <p class="info">Size and speed is not to scale.</p>
  <div class="settings">
    <label>
      Axial Tilt:
      <input
        type="range"
        id="axial-tilt"
        min="0"
        max="90"
        step="0.05"
        value="23.45" />
      <span id="axial-tilt-value">23.45°</span>
    </label>
    <label>
      Show Guides?
      <input
        type="checkbox"
        id="show-guides"
        checked />
    </label>
  </div>
  <div class="sky">
    <div class="sun"></div>
    <div class="earth-container">
      <div class="earth">
        <div class="line polars"></div>
        <div class="line tropics"></div>
        <div class="equator"></div>
      </div>
      <div class="longitudes">
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
      </div>
      <div class="night-container">
        <div class="night"></div>
      </div>
      <div class="axis"></div>
    </div>
    <div class="guide ecliptic"></div>
    <div class="guide date june-solstice"></div>
    <div class="guide date december-solstice"></div>
    <div class="guide date equinox"></div>
  </div>
</div>
            
          
!
            
              :root {
  --axial-tilt: 23.45deg;
  --size: 18vmin;
  --sun-size: 25vmin;
  --orbit-speed: 15s;
  --june: -42vmin;
  --december: 42vmin;
  --equinox: 0;
  --guide-color: #e4cab4;
}

body {
  background: #343454;
  font: 100 normal 14px/1.2 menlo, monaco, monospace;
  overflow: hidden;
}

.scene {
  width: 100vw;
  height: 100vh;
  display: flex;
  justify-content: center;
  align-items: center;
  flex-direction: column;
}

.info {
  padding: 2vh;
  font: 100 italic 1em/1 "operator mono", menlo, monaco, monospace;
  color: #fff;
  text-align: center;
}

.settings {
  width: 80vmin;
  display: flex;
  justify-content: center;
  align-items: center;
  padding: 2vh;
  border-radius: 3px;
  background: rgba(#000, .3);
  box-shadow: inset 0 -5px 5vh rgba(#020212, .25);

  label {
    color: #fff;
  }

  label + label {
    padding-left: 2vmin;
    margin-left: 2vmin;
    border-left: 1px solid rgba(#fff, .25);
  }

  input {
    margin: 0;
    vertical-align: middle;
  }
}

.sky {
  display: flex;
  justify-content: center;
  align-items: center;
  width: 100%;
  height: 70vh;
}

.sun {
  position: absolute;
  width: var(--sun-size);
  height: var(--sun-size);
  z-index: 2;
  border-radius: 50%;
  background: gold;
  animation:
    radiate
    calc( var(--orbit-speed) / 1.2)
    infinite;
}

.earth-container {
  position: relative;
  z-index: 2;
  width: var(--size);
  height: var(--size);
  animation:
    orbit
    ease-in-out
    infinite
    var(--orbit-speed)
    calc( var(--orbit-speed) / -1.35 );
}

.earth {
  width: var(--size);
  height: var(--size);
  position: relative;
  border-radius: 100%;
  overflow: hidden;
  background: #f4dab4;
  transform: rotate(var(--axial-tilt));

  .equator {
    width: 100%;
    height: 1px;
    position: absolute;
    top: 50%;
    left: 50%;
    background: #111;
    transform: translate(-50%, -50%);
  }

  @mixin line($angle, $size) {
    width: 1px;
    height: 100%;
    position: absolute;
    top: 0%;
    left: 50%;
    transform:
      translateX(-50%)
      rotate($angle);

    &::before, &::after {
      content: "";
      display: block;
      width: $size;
      height: 1px;
      background: #666;
    }

    &::before {
      transform-origin: bottom right;
      transform:
        translateX(-100%)
        rotate(calc(#{$angle} * -1))
    }

    &::after {
      position: absolute;
      bottom: 0;
      transform-origin: top left;
      transform:
        rotate(calc(#{$angle} * -1))
    }
  }

  .polars {
    @include line(var(--axial-tilt), var(--size));
  }

  .tropics {
    @include line( calc(90deg - var(--axial-tilt)), var(--size) );
  }
}

.longitudes {
  $longitudes: 12;
  position: absolute;
  top: 0;
  left: 0;
  width: var(--size);
  height: var(--size);
  border-radius: 50%;
  transform: rotate(var(--axial-tilt));
  color: rgba(#431, .4);
  animation:
    longitudes-visibility
    ease-in-out
    infinite
    var(--orbit-speed);

  div {
    position: absolute;
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
    border-radius: inherit;
    box-sizing: border-box;

    @for $i from 1 through $longitudes / 2 {
      &:nth-child(#{$i}) {
        border-left: 1px solid;
      }

      &:nth-child(#{$i + $longitudes / 2}) {
        border-right: 1px solid;
      }
    }

    @for $i from 1 through $longitudes {
      @keyframes longitude-rotate-#{$i} {
        $slice: 360deg / $longitudes;
        from {
          transform: rotateY($slice * ($i - 1));
        }
        100% {
          transform: rotateY($slice * $i);
        }
      }

      &:nth-child(#{$i}) {
        animation:
          longitude-rotate-#{$i}
          linear
          calc( var(--orbit-speed) / 60 )
          infinite;
      }
    }
  }
}

.night-container {
  position: absolute;
  top: 50%;
  left: 50%;
  transform: translate(-50%, -50%);
  width: var(--size);
  height: var(--size);
  border-radius: 50%;
  overflow: hidden;
}

.night {
  position: absolute;
  top: 0;
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  left: 0;
  background: rgba(#545474, .75);
  transform: translateX(-100%);
  animation:
    night-move linear infinite var(--orbit-speed),
    night-shape linear infinite var(--orbit-speed);

  &::before, &::after {
    content: "";
    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    display: block;
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
    opacity: 0;
    box-shadow: .5vw 0 0 var(--size) rgba(#545474, .75);
  }

  &::before {
    left: 0;
    transform: translateX(-100%);
    animation: night-before linear infinite var(--orbit-speed);
  }

  &::after {
    right: 0;
    transform: translateX(100%);
    animation: night-after linear infinite var(--orbit-speed);
  }
}

.axis {
  width: 1px;
  height: 100%;
  position: absolute;
  top: 0;
  left: 50%;
  color: springgreen;
  background: currentColor;
  transform:
    translateX(-50%)
    rotate(var(--axial-tilt))
    scaleY(1.5);

  &::after {
    position: absolute;
    content: "";
    display: block;
    width: 14px;
    height: 14px;
    border-style: solid;
    border-width: 3px 2px 1px 0;
    box-sizing: border-box;
    border-radius: 100%;
    animation:
      axis-rotate
      linear
      calc( var(--orbit-speed) / 10 )
      infinite;
  }
}

.guide {
  position: absolute;
  opacity: 1;
  transition: opacity .5s;
  color: var(--guide-color);
  background: currentColor;

  &.hidden {
    opacity: 0;
  }

  &::after {
    position: absolute;
    font-size: .9em;
  }
}

.ecliptic {
  width: 100%;
  height: 1px;

  &::after {
    content: "Ecliptic";
    right: 1vmin;
    top: 1vmin;
  }
}

.date {
  width: 1px;
  height: 25%;

  &::after {
    top: -1vmin;
    left: 50%;
    transform: translate(-50%, -100%);
  }
}

.june-solstice {
  transform:
    translate(var(--june), -50%);

  &::after {
    content: "June Solstice";

    @media (min-width: 710px) {
      width: 15ch;
    }

    @media (max-width: 709px) {
      text-align: center;
    }
  }
}

.december-solstice {
  transform:
    translate(var(--december), -50%);

  &::after {
    content: "December Solstice";

    @media (min-width: 710px) {
      width: 17ch;
    }

    @media (max-width: 709px) {
      text-align: center;
    }
  }
}

.equinox {
  transform:
    translate(var(--equinox), -50%);

  &::after {
    content: "Equinox";
    width: 7ch;
  }
}

@keyframes night-move {
  to {
    transform: translateX(100%)
  }
}

@keyframes night-shape {
  from, 25% {
    background: transparent;
  }
  25% {
    border-radius: 50% 0 0 50% / calc(var(--size) / 2);
  }
  25.01% {
    background: rgba(#545474, .75);
  }
  50% {
    border-radius: 50%;
  }
  75% {
    border-radius: 0% 50% 50% 0% / calc(var(--size) / 2);
    background: rgba(#545474, .75);
  }
  75.01%, to {
    background: transparent;
  }
}

@keyframes night-before {
  75% {
    opacity: 0;
    border-radius: 0;
  }
  75.01% {
    opacity: 1;
  }
  to {
    opacity: 1;
    border-radius: 50% / calc(var(--size) / 1.5);
  }
}

@keyframes night-after {
  from {
    opacity: 1;
    border-radius: 50% / calc(var(--size) / 1.5);
  }
  25% {
    opacity: 1;
  }
  25.01% {
    opacity: 0;
    border-radius: 0;
  }
}

@keyframes orbit {
  from, to {
    transform: translateX(var(--june));
  }
  50% {
    z-index: 2;
    transform: translateX(var(--december));
  }
  51% {
    z-index: 1;
  }
  to {
    z-index: 1;
  }
}

@keyframes axis-rotate {
  from {
    transform:
      translate(-50%, 25%)
      rotateX(75deg)
      rotate(360deg);
  }
  to {
    transform:
      translate(-50%, 25%)
      rotateX(75deg)
      rotate(-360deg);
  }
}

@keyframes radiate {
  from, to { box-shadow: 0 0 10vmin rgba(gold, .5); }
  15% { box-shadow: 0 0 8vmin rgba(gold, .5); }
  25% { box-shadow: 0 0 11vmin rgba(gold, .5); }
  36% { box-shadow: 0 0 9vmin rgba(gold, .5); }
  53% { box-shadow: 0 0 6vmin rgba(gold, .5); }
  65% { box-shadow: 0 0 3vmin rgba(gold, .5); }
  72% { box-shadow: 0 0 12vmin rgba(gold, .5); }
  80% { box-shadow: 0 0 12vmin rgba(gold, .5); }
  90% { box-shadow: 0 0 8vmin rgba(gold, .5); }
}

/*
 * Drop opacity when the earth is passing
 * in front of sun. Otherwise longitudes on
 * the left edge will look a little ugly.
 */
@keyframes longitudes-visibility {
  48%, 58% { opacity: 1; }
  50%, 56% { opacity: .6; }
}
            
          
!
            
              const DOM = document.documentElement

const setCSSProperty = (key, value) =>
  DOM.style.setProperty(key, value) 

const query = selector =>
  selector[0] === '#'
    ? document.getElementById(selector.slice(1))
    : document.querySelectorAll(selector)

const formatTiltValue = value =>
  `0${value.toFixed(2)}`.slice(-5)

const axialTilt = query('#axial-tilt')
const axialTiltValue = query('#axial-tilt-value')
axialTilt.addEventListener('input', event => {
  const value = formatTiltValue(+event.target.value)
  axialTiltValue.innerText = `${value}°`
  setCSSProperty('--axial-tilt', `${value}deg`)
})

const showGuides = query('#show-guides')
const guides = query('.guide')
showGuides.addEventListener('change', event => {
  guides.forEach(guide => {
    guide.classList.toggle('hidden')
  })
})
            
          
!
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