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        <h1>Political Economy</h1>
    <aside id="overflow-scroll">
            <li><a href="#introduction">introduction</a></li>
            <li><a href="# Dialectical-materialism">Dialectical materialism </a></li>
            <li><a href="#Scope">The Scope of Dialectical Materialism</a></li>
            <li><a href="#What-Is">What Is Primitive Communism?</a></li>
            <li><a href="#Definition">Definition Of Primitive Communism</a></li>
            <li><a href="#Characteristics">Characteristics Of Primitive Communist Societies</a></li>
            <li><a href="#CONCLUSION">CONCLUSION</a></li>
            <li><a href="#REFERENCE">REFERENCE</a></li>
    <div id="container">
        <div class="lesson-1">
            <h1 id="introduction">introduction</h1>
            <p>Dialectical materialism is the scientific methodology developed by Marx and Engels for the interpretation of history. Here, Marx has borrowed heavily from his predecessors, particularly, the German philosopher Hegel. Dialectics is a very old methodology, employed to discover truth by exposing contradictions, through a clash of opposite ideas. Hegel refined it by developing the trilogy of thesis, anti-thesis and synthesis. It is popularly known as the Dialectical Triad. Progress or growth takes place through the dialectical process. At every stage of growth, it is characterised by contradictions. These contradictions induce further changes, progress, and development. The thesis is challenged by its anti-thesis. Both contain elements of truth and falsehood. Truth is permanent, but falsehood is transitory. In the ensuing conflict of the thesis and the anti-thesis, the truth remains, but the false elements are destroyed. These false elements constitute contradictions.</p>
        <div class="lesson-2">
            <h1 id=" Dialectical-materialism"> Dialectical materialism </h1>
            <p>A simple definition of Marx's concept of dialectical materialism is a view of history as determined by the struggle between economic forces. In "dialectical" Marx means to see history as progressing through conflict between opposing forces. In "materialism" Marx holds that it is the material factors of human reality are the field in which these shaping conflicts take place (as opposed to the field of thought, as Hegel would argue in his dialectical idealism).</p>
        <div class="lesoon-3">
            <h1 id="Scope">The Scope of Dialectical Materialism</h1>
            <p>Many times in the history of the labor movement capitalist spokesmen have sought to confine the activities of the workers within narrow limits. Workers are advised to restrict their activities to a particular plant or industry or within the boundaries of one country. Labor organizations are warned against entering politics, and, once they do become an independent force in political life, are cautioned against seizing state power on their own account. These “No Trespassing” signs are put up for one purpose: to keep the workers from invading these privileged precincts so that reactionary forces can enjoy their undisputed possession.
        <div class="lesson-4">
            <h1 id="What-Is">What Is Primitive Communism?</h1>
            <p>The traditional economy characterized most of the societies in the early centuries. The traditional economy is built around the way of life of the society and which customs and traditional beliefs are critical in the production of goods and services. It is based on traditional agriculture, hunting, gathering, and fishing while barter trade is used in place of money. The family unit is an important factor in the traditional economy with most families progressing from hunters to farmers only in places where they can put up permanent structures. Given the traditional economy, economists referred to the way of life and interactions in these societies as primitive communism.</p>
        <div class="lesson-5">
            <h1 id="Definition">Definition Of Primitive Communism</h1>
            <p>Primitive communism was a concept put forward by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who proposed that the traditional hunters and gatherers were based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership. A Marxist model socioeconomic society with primitive communism had no defined or hierarchical structure or capital. Marx suggested that the ancient methods of production are the key pillars that define the transition of societies. The early characteristics of primitive communism involving the primitive ways of hunting and gathering paved for traditional methods of agriculture. Primitive communism is, therefore, a collective right to basic resources in a social relationship like society or family without any authoritarian rule.</p>
        <div class="lesson-6">
            <h1 id="Characteristics">Characteristics Of Primitive Communist Societies</h1>
            <p>In primitive communism and societies, every able voided person was engaged in the production of food and everyone share in the food that has been obtained by either hunting or gathering. There is no private ownership of property such as clothing and such similar items because the primitive society produce just enough and is immediately consumed and there is no surplus. Whatever exists for a lengthy time like tools and housing are communally owned. There is a division of labor with men taking much of the hunting while the women are involved in the gathering. Pregnant women or those nursing their babies are protected from the dangers of hunting to preserve the next generation. However, there is no division of labor in other aspects such as leadership since both men and women take part in decision making.</p>
        <div class="lesson-7">
            <h1 id="CONCLUSION">CONCLUSION</h1>
            <p>Dialectical materialism holds that the world, including human beings, is "matter in motion" and that progress occurs through struggle. It follows the Hegelian principle of the philosophy of history, namely the development of the thesis into its antithesis, which is in turn superseded by a synthesis that conserves aspects of the thesis and the antithesis while at the same time abolishing them. While retaining Hegel's dialectical method, however, Marx and Engels reacted against Hegel's idealism.</p>
                <p>Primitive communism was a concept put forward by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who proposed that the traditional hunters and gatherers were based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership. A Marxist model socioeconomic society with primitive communism had no defined or hierarchical structure or capital. Marx suggested that the ancient methods of production are the key pillars that define the transition of societies.
        <div class="lesson-7">
            <h1 id="REFERENCE">REFERENCE:</h1>
                    <li>Scott, John; Marshall, Gordon (2007). A Dictionary of Sociology. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860987-2.</li> 
                    <li>^ Felluga, Dino (1 January 2011). "Introductory Guide to Critical Theory -Modules on Marx: On the Stages of Economic Development". Purdue University. Retrieved 3 February 2021.</li>   
                    <li>^ Bealey, Frank (August 1999). The Blackwell Dictionary of Political Science. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 978-0-631-20695-8.</li>    
                    <li>^ Morgan, Lewis Henry (1881). Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.</li>   
                    <li>^ Lee, Richard; DeVore, Irven (1969). Man the Hunter. Aldine Transaction. ISBN 978-0-202-33032-7.</li>  



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