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                <h1>Aligned Footnotes with Superscript Numbering</h1>
				<li id="fnote01"> The term “scattering” (cf. <a href="chapter7.html#§7.10" class="xref">§ 7.10</a>) is used because, after interacting with the nucleus, the neutron of lower energy generally moves off in a direction different from that in which the original neutron was traveling before the collision.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.09">§ 8.09</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote02"> In an isomer of a particular nuclear species the nuclei are in a high-energy (or excited) state with an appreciable half-life. The isomers of interest here are those that decay rapidly, with a half-life of about one thousandth of a second or less, by the emission of the excess (or excitation) energy as gamma radiation.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.10">§ 8.10</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote03"> According lo the official definition, 1 roentgen produces electrons (in ion pairs) with a total charge of 2.58 × 10<sup>-4</sup> coulomb in 1 kilogram of dry air.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.17">§ 8.17</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote04"> The rough equivalence between a gamma (or X-ray) exposure of 1 roentgen and the absorption in body tissue of 1 rad holds for photons of intermediate energies (0.3 lo 3 MeV). For photon energies outside the range from 0.3 to 3 MeV, the exposure in roentgens is no longer simply related to the absorption in rads.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.18">§ 8.18</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote05"> The density referred to here (and subsequently) is that of the air before it is disturbed by the explosion (cf. <a href="chapter8.html#§8.36" class="xref">§ 8.36</a>).
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.33">§ 8.33</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote06"> The “half-value thickness” is sometimes used; it is defined as the thickness of a given material which reduces the dose of impinging radiation to (approximately) one half. Two such thicknesses decrease the dose to one fourth; three thicknesses to one eighth, etc.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.39">§ 8.39</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote07"> The tenth-value thicknesses are for gamma rays that are incident perpendicularly on the slab of material.  If the rays make an angle θ with the perpendicular, the tenth-value thickness is obtained approximately by multiplying the values in the table by cosine θ, provided θ is less than 45°.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.41">§ 8.41</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote08"> The ionization and excitation resulting from the interaction of fast neutrons with hydrogen in tissue is considered to be the main cause of biological injury by neutrons.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.58">§ 8.58</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote09"> The neutron fluence (at a given energy) is, in a sense, a measure of the neutron exposure (at that energy). The absorbed dose can be derived from the fluence by allowing for the energy deposited by the neutrons in a specified material.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.61">§ 8.61</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote10"> For the dependence of neutron fluences at various energies on the energy yield and distance from a nuclear explosion, see Figs. 8.117a and b.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.79">§ 8.79</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote11"> In this and other cases, the damage is determined by the dose rate (rather than the dose) of gamma radiation.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.84">§ 8.84</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote12"> The remaining sections of this chapter may be omitted without loss of continuity.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#section5">Section 5</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote13"> In this equation, the intensity is the number of (uncollided) photons per square centimeter per second. A similar equation, with the “linear energy absorption coefficient” replacing the linear attenuation coefficient, is applicable when the intensity is expressed in terms of the total energy of the photons per square centimeter per second.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.95">§ 8.95</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote14"> A relaxation length may be taken as the distance in which the radiation intensity in a specified material is decreased by a factor of <em>e</em>, where <em>e</em> is the base of the natural logarithms (about 2.718). The relaxation length in a given material depends on the neutron energy and on whether the direct fluence only or the total (direct plus scattered) fluence is being considered.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.120">§ 8.120</a>]</span>
				<li id="fnote15"> It should be noted that the ordinates in Fig. 8.14 are the energy emission rates; the total energy would then be obtained by integration over the effective emission time. This time is very much shorter for isomeric decay gamma rays than for fission products.
<span class="backjump">[ref. <a href="#§8.125">§ 8.125</a>]</span>

<p style="text-align:center;"><small>Uses footnotes from <a href=""><em>The Effects of Nuclear Weapons</em></a>. Inspired by <a href="">"Nuclear Targeted Footnotes"</a>.</small></p>


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