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                <div class="jumbotron text-center">
  <h1>Alan Turing OBE FRS</h1>
  <h2>23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954</h2>
</div>

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      <img class="thumbnail" src="https://www.gchq.gov.uk/sites/default/files/alan_turing.jpg" width="100%" height="100%" alt="Alan Turing">
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      <h2>Founder of computer science and cryptography, whose work was key to breaking the wartime Enigma codes.</h2>
    </div>

  </div>

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          <h3>Through the years</h3>
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          <h4>23rd June 1912</h4>
          <p>Born Maida Vale, London, England</p>
          <h4>1926</h4>
          <p>Attends Sherborne Independent School, where he shows a natural ability for mathematics and science.</p>
          <h4>1930</h4>
          <p>Death of Christopher Morcom, Turing's childhood friend. </p>
          <h4>1931 - 1934</h4>
          <p>Undergraduate at Kings College, Cambridge. Gaining first class honours in Mathematics</p>
          <h4>1935</h4>
          <p>Elected a fellow at Kings College, for his dissertation proving the 'Central Limit Theorem'.</p>
          <h4>1936</h4>
          <p>Published his paper 'On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem'. Which includes the notion of a 'Universal Machine' or 'Turing Machine'.
            <p>
              <h4>1936 - 1938</h4>
              <p>Attends Princeton University, New Jersey, USA. Obtaining his PhD for his dissertation 'Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals'.</p>
              <h4>September 1938</h4>
              <p>Returns to Cambridge and works part time with the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS), concentrating on cryptanalysis of the Enigma.</p>
              <h4>September 1939</h4>
              <p>The day after the UK declared war on Germany, Turing reports to Bletchley Park, the wartime station of GC&CS.</p>
              <p>Where he specified the 'Bombe' an electromechanical machine that became the primary tools used to attack Enigma-enciphered messages.</p>
              <h4>1941</h4>
              <p>Turing proposed marriage to Hut 8 colleague Joan Clarke, although short lived after admitting his homosexuality.</p>
              <h4>1942</h4>
              <p>Devised a technique termed Turingery for use against the Lorenz cipher messages produced by the Germans' new secret writer machine.</p>
              <h4>1943</h3>
          <p>Following his work at Bells Lab in the US, he returns to Bletchley Park and joins the Secret Service's Radio Security Service, where along with Donald Bayley they construct a portable secure voice communications machine codenamed Delilah.</p>
          <h4>1945</h4>
              <p>Awarded the OBE by King George VI for his wartime services.</p>
              <h4>1945 - 1947</h4>
              <p>Moves to Hampton, London. Where he begins work on the 'ACE' (Automatic Computing Engine) at the National Physical Laboratory.</p>
              <h4>1946</h4>
              <p>Presents a paper, with the first detailed design of a stored-program computer.</p>
              <h4>1948</h4>
              <p>Appointed Reader in the Mathematics Department at the Victoria University of Manchester.</p>
              <h4>1949</h4>
              <p>Becomes Deputy Director of the Computing Machine Laboratory, working on software for one of the earliest stored-program computers—the Manchester Mark 1.</p>
              <h4>1950</h4>
              <p>The Pilot ACE executed in Turings abscence its first program on 10 May 1950, a number of later computers around the world owe much to its design.</p>
              <p>Turing addresses the problem of artificial intelligence, and proposed an experiment that became known as the Turing test, an attempt to define a standard for a machine to be called "intelligent".</p>
              <h4>1952</h4>
              <p>Convicted for indeceny after starting a relationship with Arnold Murray.</p>
              <p>Turing's conviction led to the removal of his security clearance and barred him from continuing with his cryptographic consultancy for the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), the British signals intelligence agency that had evolved
                from GC&CS.</p>
              <h4>8th June 1954</h4>
              <p>Found dead by his house keeper. A post-mortem examination established that the cause of death was cyanide poisoning.</p>

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          <h3>Recognition and tributes</h3>
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          <h4>Since 1966</h4>
          <p>The Turing Award has been given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery for technical or theoretical contributions to the computing community. It is widely considered to be the computing world's highest honour, equivalent to the
            Nobel Prize</p>
          <h4>23rd June 1998</h4>
          <p>Andrew Hodges, Turing's biographer unveils an English Heritage blue plaque at his birthplace and childhood home in Warrington Crescent, London.</p>
          <h4>1999</h4>
          <p>Time magazine name Turing as one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century stating, "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing
            machine.
          </p>
          <h4>March 2000</h4>
          <p>Saint Vincent and the Grenadines issued a set of postage stamps to celebrate the greatest achievements of the 20th century, one of which carries a portrait of Turing against a background of repeated 0s and 1s, and is captioned: "1937: Alan Turing's
            theory of digital computing".</p>
          <h4>June 2001</h4>
          <p>City of Manchester unveils a statue, the cast bronze bench carries in relief the text 'Alan Mathison Turing 1912–1954', and the motto 'Founder of Computer Science' as it could appear if encoded by an Enigma machine: 'IEKYF ROMSI ADXUO KVKZC
            GUBJ'.
          </p>
          <h4>April 2003</h4>
          <p>Turing's work at Bletchley Park was named an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Milestone.</p>
          <h4>7th June 2004</h4>
          <p>To mark the 50th anniversary of his death, a memorial plaque was unveiled at his former residence in Wilmslow, Cheshire.</p>
          <h4>October 2004</h4>
          <p>A bronze statue of Alan Turing sculpted by John W. Mills was unveiled at the University of Surrey in Guildford, marking the 50th anniversary of Turing's death.</p>
          <h4>June 2007</h4>
          <p>A life-size statue of Turing was unveiled at Bletchley Park.</p>
          <h4>Princeton Alumni Weekly</h4>
          <p>Names Turing the second most significant alumnus in the history of Princeton University, second only to President James Madison</p>
          <h4>Tributes by universities include:</h4>
          <ul>
            <li>Kings College, Cambridge</li>
            <li>University of Edinburgh's School of Informatics</li>
            <li>University of Surrey</li>
            <li>Istanbul Bilgi University</li>
            <li>University of Texas at Austin</li>
            <li>Stanford University</li>
            <li>University of Manchester</li>
          </ul>
          <h4>Centenary Celebrations</h4>
          <p>To mark the 100th anniversary of Turing's birth, the Turing Centenary Advisory Committee (TCAC) co-ordinated the Alan Turing Year, a year-long programme of events around the world honouring Turing's life and achievements.</p>
        </div>
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          <h3>Quotes</h3>
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          <p><em>"Sometimes it is the people no one can imagine anything of who do the things no one can imagine."</em></p>
          <p><em>“It seems probable that once the machine thinking method had started, it would not take long to outstrip our feeble powers… They would be able to converse with each other to sharpen their wits. At some stage therefore, we should have to expect the machines to take control.”</em></p>
          <p><em>“The original question, 'Can machines think?' I believe to be too meaningless to deserve discussion.” </em></p>
          <p><em>“The isolated man does not develop any intellectual power. It is necessary for him to be immersed in an environment of other men, whose techniques he absorbs during the first twenty years of his life. He may then perhaps do a little research of his own and make a very few discoveries which are passed on to other men. From this point of view the search for new techniques must be regarded as carried out by the human community as a whole, rather than by individuals.” </em></p>
          <p><em>“Those who can imagine anything, can create the impossible.”</em></p>
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>

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          To find out more about Alan Turing visit his <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing" target="_blank">Wikipedia</a> page.
        </div>
        <div class="col-sm-6 text-right">
          Code written by <a href="https://joelpeyton.co.uk" target="_blank">Joel Peyton.</a>
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    <div class="panel-footer">&nbsp;</div>
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