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                <nav role="navigation">
    <li><a href="#the-default-view">the default view</a></li>
    <li><a href="#some-view">some view</a></li>
    <li><a href="#another-view">another view</a></li>
<main role="main">
  <div id="some-view">
    <h1>Some view</h1>
    <p>This is one of any number of views that are reachable by linking to its <code>id</code> / hash identifier.</p>
  <div id="another-view">
    <h1>Another view</h1>
    <p>This is one of any number of views that are reachable by linking to its <code>id</code> / hash identifier.</p>
  <div id="the-default-view">
    <h1>The default view</h1>
    <p>This view is visible by default when the user first arrives at the app.</p>


                /* basic layout */

body {
  font-size: 120%;
  font-family: sans-serif;
  max-width: 40em;
  margin: 0 auto;

nav {
  text-align: center;
  padding: 0.5em 0;
  border-bottom: 2px solid;

nav li {
  display: inline-block;
  margin: 0 0.5em;

/* view visibility logic and animation */

main > * {
  display: none;

main > *:last-child {
  display: block;

@keyframes pulse {
  0% { transform: scale(1) }
  50% { transform: scale(1.05) }
  100% { transform: scale(1) }

main > *:target {
  display: block;
  animation: pulse 0.5s linear 1;

main > *:target ~ * {
  display: none;


                (function() {
    var app = {
        // routes (ie. views and their functionality) defined here
        'routes': {
            'some-view': {
                'rendered': function() {
                    console.log('this view is "some-view"');
            'another-view': {
                'rendered': function() {
                    console.log('this view is "another-view"');
                    app.routeElem.innerHTML = '<p>This javascript content overrides the static content for this view.</p>';
        // The default view is recorded here. A more advanced implementation
        // might query the DOM to define it on the fly
        'default': 'the-default-view',
        'routeChange': function() {
            app.routeID = location.hash.slice(1);
            app.route = app.routes[app.routeID];
            app.routeElem = document.getElementById(app.routeID);
            if (app.route) {
        // The function to start the app.
        'init': function() {
            window.addEventListener('hashchange', function() {
            // If there's no hash in the URL, change the URL to
            // include the default view's hash
            if (!window.location.hash) {
                window.location.hash = app.default;
            } else {
                // Execute routeChange() for the first time
    }; = app;