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HTML

              
                <header>
	<h1>Rustication (architecture)</h1>
	<p>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia</p>
</header>

<figure id="fig1">
	<img src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/Palazzo_medici_riccardi%2C_bugnato_01.JPG/220px-Palazzo_medici_riccardi%2C_bugnato_01.JPG" alt="Palazzo Medici-Riccardi" width="220" height="293" aria-describedby="fig1-caption"/>
	<figcaption id="fig1-caption">Two different styles of rustication in the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence; smooth-faced above and rough-faced below.</figcaption>
</figure>

<figure id="fig2">
	<img src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Fontainebleau_2011_%28200%29.JPG/220px-Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Fontainebleau_2011_%28200%29.JPG" alt="Chateau de Fontainebleau" width="220" height="165" aria-describedby="fig3-caption"/>
	<figcaption id="fig2-caption">Extreme Mannerist "cyclopian" rustication at the Palace of Fontainebleau</figcaption>
</figure>

<p>In classical architecture rustication is a range of masonry techniques giving visible surfaces a finish that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished, squared-block masonry surfaces called ashlar. The visible face of each individual block is cut back around the edges to make its size and placing very clear. In addition the central part of the face of each block may be given a deliberately rough or patterned surface.[1]</p>
<p>Rusticated masonry is usually "dressed", or squared off neatly, on all sides of the stones except the face that will be visible when the stone is put in place. This is given wide joints that emphasize the edges of each block, by angling the edges ("channel-jointed"), or dropping them back a little. The main part of the exposed face may worked flat and smooth or left or worked with a more or less rough or patterned surface. Rustication is often used to give visual weight to the ground floor in contrast to smooth ashlar above. Though intended to convey a "rustic" simplicity, the finish is highly artificial, and the faces of the stones often carefully worked to achieve an appearance of a coarse finish.[2]</p>
<p>Rustication was used in ancient times, but became especially popular in the revived classical styles of Italian Renaissance architecture and that of subsequent periods, above all in the lower floors of secular buildings. It remains in use in some modern architecture.</p>
<p>Similar finishes are very common in medieval architecture, especially in castles, walls and similar buildings, but here it merely arises from an unwillingness to spend the extra money required for ashlar masonry in a particular building, and lacks the deliberate emphasis on the joints between blocks. Though it often achieves a decorative effect, this is something of a by-product, and the exploitation for architectural effect within a single building of contrasts between rusticated and ashlar surfaces is rarely seen. In some buildings, such as the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (begun 1298) something other than cost-saving is at play, and this may be the association of the technique with the display of power and strength, from its use in military architecture.[3] Rough finishes on stone are also very common in architecture outside the European tradition, but these too would generally not be called rustication. For example, the bases of Japanese castles (城, shiro) and other fortifications usually use rough stone, often very attractively.</p>

<section id="History">
	<h2>History</h2>
	
	<figure id="fig3">
		<img src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Serlio_XXIX.jpg/220px-Serlio_XXIX.jpg" alt="" aria-describedby="fig3-caption"/>
		<figcaption id="fig3-caption">Serlio, rusticated doorway of the type now called a Gibbs surround, 1537</figcation>
	</figure>
	
	<p>Although rustication is known from a few buildings of Greek and Roman antiquity, for example Rome's Porta Maggiore, the method first became popular during the Renaissance, when the stone work of lower floors and sometimes entire facades of buildings were finished in this manner.[4] It was generally used for secular buildings, and has always remained uncommon in churches, perhaps through a lingering association with the architecture of military power; there are exceptions, such as St Giles in the Fields, London (1730–34).</p>
	<p>Probably the earliest and most influential example is the Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence, built between 1444 and 1484, with two contrasting rusticated finishes. The ground floor has an irregular and genuinely rugged appearance, with a variation in the degree to which parts of the faces of blocks project from the wall that is rarely equalled later. Above, the rustication is merely to emphasize the individual blocks, and the faces are all smooth and even. Also in Florence, Palazzo Strozzi, begun 1489, with large oblong rounded cushions, and the front of the Pitti Palace, begun 1458, rusticated their whole facades in the same style. These facades only used the classical orders in mullions and aedicules, with arched forms in rustication the main relief from the massive flat walls. The Palazzo Rucellai, probably of the 1460s, begins to classicize such facades, using smooth-faced rustication throughout, except for the pilasters at each level.</p>
</section>
              
            
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CSS

              
                body
{
	max-width: 40em;
	margin: auto;
	padding: 2.6rem;
	font: 1.25em/1.3 Georgia, sans-serif;
}

p
{
	margin: 1.3rem 0;
}

h1
{
	margin: 0 0 0.65rem;
	border-bottom: thin solid hsl(0, 0%, 50%);
	padding-bottom: 0.65rem;
	font-size: 1.7rem;
	line-height: 1;
}

h2
{
	margin: 2.6rem 0 1.3rem;
	border-bottom: thin solid hsl(0, 0%, 50%);
	padding-bottom: 0.65rem;
	font-size: 1.3rem;
	line-height: 1;	
}

figure
{
	display: inline-block;
	width: -webkit-min-content;
	width: -moz-min-content;
	width: min-content;
	margin: 0 0 1.3rem;
}

figcaption,
header > p
{
	margin-top: 0.65rem;
	font-size: 0.8em;
	line-height: 1.2;
}

@media (min-width: 36em)
{
	#fig1,
	#fig2
	{
		clear: right;
		float: right;
		margin-left: 2.6rem;
	}

	#fig3
	{
		clear: left;
		float: left;
		margin-right: 2.6rem;	
	}
}


              
            
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JS

              
                
              
            
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999px

Console