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 <h1 class="text-primary text-center">The Founding of Sagehen Creek Field Station</h1>
  <p>In the late 1940's, the California legistature came to the University of California with a proposal and funding for a new wildlife and fisheries program. At the time, UC consisted of only one campus: Berkeley. 
  <p>Wildlife professors A. Starker Leopold and Paul R. (Doc) Needham accepted the challenge. In addition to the didactic program on campus, they wanted a field component. They hunted and fished their way through the Sierra Nevada until they found Sagehen Creek, a perennial creek with naturally occurring side channels where they could divert the flow to do precise biotic surveys of a stream channel for the first time. In the winter of 1950-51, a group including state legislators and representatives of the US Forest Service skied out to the site and signed the deal establishing 'The Sagehen Project'. 
    Since then, Sagehen Creek Field Station has produced approximately 100 Masters and Ph.D. theses, and many hundreds of scientific publications, while serving to educate thousands of students from GK-12 through undergraduate and graduate level. 
      In 2005, the facility grew from the roughly 300-acre station footprint to the entire 9,000-acre watershed, which became the Sagehen Experimental Forest. In recent years, the research focus expanded from fisheries and wildlife, to climate change, hydrology, forest ecosystem management, and much more.</p>
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       <h2 class="text-primary text-center">A. Starker Leopold</h2>
      <img src="" alt="A. Starker Leopold" class="img-responsive thick-gray-border"></br></br>
       <p>"Professor Leopold was born in Burlington, Iowa, the eldest son of Aldo and Estella Bergere Leopold. Boyhood exposure to his father's attainments led Starker, first to follow the elder Aldo's footsteps, and then to blaze his own trails to become one of the world's most influential and honored authorities on wildlife ecology and management.
He was educated at the University of Wisconsin, the Yale Forestry School, and the Department of Zoology at Berkeley, where he received the Ph.D. degree in 1944. After working in Mexico for the Conservation Section of the Pan-American Union, Leopold returned to Berkeley in 1946 as Assistant Professor of Zoology and Conservation in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. He became professor in 1957. In 1967, he became Professor of Zoology and Forestry and moved his headquarters to the latter Department where he remained until he retired in 1978.
Starker Leopold's gifts as a teacher are widely acknowledged. Students responded to his infectious enthusiasm for his field and knew him as an exacting taskmaster who expected their best. He had an unusual capacity to simplify the complex. For those aspects of wildlife ecology that might seem overwhelmingly difficult to young students, he provided easily understood models. He had a rare ability to combine scientific theory and facts with keen personal observations throughout the world's most important wildlife habitats. His courses attracted many non-major students, many of whom described them (and the professor) as “among the best in the University.”
He displayed deep personal interest in his students' welfare. Whatever activity he might be engaged in when a student came to see him, he put it  aside to give his visitor individual attention. For many of them, initial contacts at Berkeley became lifelong professional and personal friendships.
Many in the wildlife field relied on Leopold for help with their more difficult problems. As a result, he was heavily involved in public policy matters at the highest level. In 1968, the Special Advisory Board on Wildlife Management of the Department of Interior, which he chaired, produced reports which led directly to significant new policies for the National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges. Similarly, in 1972, through membership on a subsequent Advisory Committee on Predator Control, his views were remarkably effective in changing federal policy toward predatory animals. Earlier he did highly influential consulting on aspects of wildlife conservation policy with the National Parks in Tanzania, with the Missouri Conservation Department, and the Mexican Game Department. His effectiveness in the public policy arena was a demonstration of his ability to teach at all levels, from undergraduate students to those with the largest governmental and business responsibilities. His influence on this broader scene is reflected in his service as a Trustee and for two terms as President of the California Academy of Sciences, and as a Director and Vice President of the Sierra Club. He was vigorously engaged in such public service activities almost to the day of his death.
As an author, Leopold's publications will have enduring value. His books, Wildlife in Alaska (with F. F. Darling) (1953), Wildlife of Mexico: The Game Birds and Mammals (1959), The Desert (1961), and The California Quail (1977), brought together the results of his years of research on these topics. North American Game Birds and Mammals (1982) (with R. Guttierez and M. Bronson) will, no doubt, become a standard reference and textbook for wildlife management. More than a hundred periodical articles and technical reports display his versatility in writing, with rigor and clarity, on the many scientific topics on which he reported, and with insight and humanity in occasional but thought-provoking philosophical pieces. Even his technical books catch your attention with the first paragraph and carry you along with their clear and captivating style.
Leopold's outstanding scientific stature was confirmed with his election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Other recognitions were a Department of Interior Conservation Award, the Aldo Leopold Medal of the Wildlife Society, the Audubon Society Medal, the Browning Medal of the Smithsonian Institution, and the Fellows Medal of the California Academy of Sciences.
Starker's contributions to the University included service as Associate Director of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (1958-65), Assistant to the Berkeley Chancellor (1960-63), and director of the Sagehen Creek Field Station (1965-78). His influence on academic affairs was often both subtle and potent. With colleagues from other departments, he developed an interdepartmental Ph.D. program in natural resource conservation long before the field became a highly popular one. Following transfer to the Department of Forestry and Conservation in 1967, he worked for the further development of professional education in wildlife biology and management and for closer integration of wildlife, range management, and forestry at Berkeley. He had strong influence in the 1970s on changes in forestry curricula to serve better concerns for the conservation of natural environments, and on recruiting faculty with the breadth to deal with the entire spectrum of forest resources. His voice was always firmly in support of a liberal concept of professional education.</p><p>
He had a capacity for bridging gaps between preservationists and managers, liberals and conservatives, hunters and anti-hunters--a talent which served the academic community well in resolving basic issues of educational policy. He kept his eyes on his main goal, a world suited to wildlife and therefore fit for people. The quality of his service to the University was recognized when he was awarded the Berkeley Citation on his retirement.
Despite the eminence of his academic and scientific achievements, Starker will no doubt be remembered longest by students, colleagues, and friends, for his personal qualities. Love of the outdoors, great personal warmth, sensitivity to others, profound appreciation and respect for the intricate beauty of nature: these were characteristics which knit his life to those of his legions of friends and intimately personal ways. A superb raconteur, he always had a positive outlook and an inexhaustible zest for life, which he lived completely. Anyone who camped with him appreciated his skills in making camp life comfortable. His artistry with a dutch oven, his insistence on maintaining such amenities as the bath and the sundowner in the face of obstacles, and his complete awareness and understanding of the natural world around him, gave new meaning and enjoyment to outdoor life for all who shared it with him." -- <a href="" target="_blank">UC Obituary</a></p>
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      <h2 class="text-primary text-center">Paul R. (Doc) Needham</h2>
      <img src="" alt="Paul R. 'Doc' Needham" class="img-responsive thick-gray-border"></br></br>
<p>"Professor Paul Robert Needham came to the University of California in 1949 to initiate teaching and research in an area of science new to the Berkeley campus, namely, ichthyology and fisheries management. By the time of his death in 1964, Professor Needham had established this field of inquiry as an important activity in the Department of Zoology.</p>
Born January 14, 1902, in Lake Forest, Illinois, Paul Needham grew up in an academic atmosphere under the tutelage of his father, Professor James G. Needham, one of the most respected and revered biologists on the faculty of Cornell University. The senior Needham was primarily interested in the insects of streams and it was natural for Paul to gravitate toward the study of aquatic biology. All of his university degrees were taken at Cornell--a B.S. in Entomology in 1924, M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Limnology in 1926 and 1928, respectively. For two years (1927-1929) Paul Needham served as Instructor in Limnology at Cornell, followed by another two-year Instructorship in Biology at the University of Rochester (1929-1931). Then began a period of government service as an Aquatic Biologist with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, 1931-1940, stationed at Stanford University, and a subsequent period of tenure with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1940-1944, stationed at Convict Creek Field Station in Owens Valley. In 1944, Dr. Needham became Director of Fisheries with the Oregon State Game Commission, in which capacity he served until accepting the academic appointment as Professor of Zoology on the Berkeley campus.</p>
In addition to teaching courses in ichthyology and fisheries management in the Department of Zoology, Paul Needham devoted much of his energy to establishing and then expanding the Sagehen Creek Field Station, a university facility situated near Truckee and designed particularly as a base for field studies of trout populations in a typical Sierra stream. With a modest budget and incredible ingenuity and persistence, Professor Needham pieced together a highly functional research and teaching field station consisting at the time of his death of nine buildings housing personnel, research laboratories, teaching and study collections, and special facilities such as a small hatchery and an underwater tank for observing fish in their natural environment. Substantial support for this work was obtained from the Max C. Fleischmann Foundation of Reno, Nevada. </p>
      <p>Although fisheries studies were emphasized at Sagehen Creek Field Station, various other investigations by graduate students and staff were based there, yielding published reports on a variety of biological problems. Each summer the station has served as a field teaching facility for university classes in wildlife and fisheries biology, entomology, and botany. The Sagehen Creek Field Station is today an important adjunct of the university; its existence is attributable in major part to Paul Needham's foresight and dedication.</p>
Most of Paul Needham's research concerned the salmonid fishes, especially trout. The extended study of the trout population in Sagehen Creek demonstrated over a ten-year period that the fishery supported a high angling yield without recourse to artificial stocking. His 101 publications touched on many aspects of trout ecology, behavior, taxonomy, and conservation. During periods of leave from the University, he traveled widely in Europe and North America, studying trout in various habitats and ecologic situations. At the time of his death, he had planned a trip to investigate the introduced trout populations of Australia and New Zealand. As a world authority on this important group of game fishes, Dr. Needham was called on to perform many public and professional services. He served on many boards, commissions and committees, and was active in a number of professional societies including the Wildlife Society, of which he was elected president in 1942. But his students and associates probably remember him best as he went happily about the tasks of studying trout in Sagehen Creek, pursuing the line of inquiry that for so long dominated his interests." -- <a href="" target="_blank">UCB Obituary</a></p>
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    <p>Written and coded by <a href="" target="_blank">F. Felix</a></p>


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