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                <h1 id="title">Friedrich Zander</h1>
                <h2 id="title-citation">"Forward to Mars!"</h2>
            <div id="img-div">
                <img id="image" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/6VwR1dSBQiVhSRDcAWzy4v0fcfr7ZS7LIfSTKvED8hdypCnFoenawRZwAKNqBYhFFH_WwomPncItC9_n0tll3RCUpMYDEbTWIM04sQ-d7pZX381t28xmNFI2WhPKKgzt-d_US1soQD3QYOSb3QoIY7G-P7BgvunpxO3NB5FpV1aSTihrhnswiebQbhHotT0dz_pHhGnLJviQ6dOHwCbR-H3r_MkyMTC-nr3YNXqsPionKx3PquX0du_Rm6lHwaR74GM685jAAOEOtiTTkPwIFICsQPlb6xkpUyjumiWBb90C_8SIqS-X-6DZc243f2_v39aeJ6w272egvHwxREyeHy3ICXk6Hm78uIqwYl2u0hylYLtxW_7N8EWjh77nKFeXTg0GbDy6PB5SsUd-9F5zTe3tRMwgf5iQduU6LM80gpax3eiA9oXh7UbLGR_QrzsA2MueCKiBSlrpQu23Q4MkcF4qHwNHfMbZytFxm6W5XcutNCVvZnqVsDbajUlNwSvbN83bjm_sqDrLBIu6BO7zoJAXuFs2axweiTM7wmTa-IB5Ycc2ehpG8mkd3S8TVnP9MyOw4AxOwyjADxyiS4ENeM4xQFsiiWik3CExdk9BIJhvqBU0MeSxonBGadov8JwRtDKm_tyYned1qmYWUO_u30NVVVvrC_Ym_xcTGvkbxp5UpaNIcRWB0kGh=w190-h266-no" alt="Portrait of F. Zander">
                    <p id="img-caption"> 
                        11 August 1887 – 28 March 1933

            <article id="tribute-info">
                <section class="article-section">
                  <p>Zander was born in Riga, Russian Empire, into a Baltic German family. 
                      His father Artur was a doctor, but Friedrich Zander was fascinated 
                      by other natural sciences. Zander was enrolled in the Riga urban 
                      technical high school in 1898, for a seven-year program in which he 
                      was a top student. During this time, he became acquainted with the
                      work of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and space travel became his foremost 
                      scientific passion. While studying engineering at the Riga Polytechnic 
                      Institute, he carried out trajectory calculations for a flight to Mars.
                      Mars held a special fascination to Zander, and "Forward to Mars!"
                      (Вперед, на Марс!) became his famous motto.</p>
                  <p>He graduated with his engineering degree in 1914, moved to Moscow
                      in 1915. He worked at the "Provodnik" rubber plant, then in 1919 
                      worked at Aircraft Factory No. 4 ("Motor"). In 1923, he was married
                      to A.F. Milyukova, and they had a daughter named Astra and a son named 
                      Mercury. Mercury died of scarlet fever in 1929. After several years 
                      of unemployment and intensive research on rocketry and space travel,
                      in 1926, Tsander began work at the Central Design Bureau of Aviation, 
                      and in 1930 worked at the Central Institute of Aviation Motor
                      Construction (TsIAM).</p>
                <section class="article-section" id="odd">
                      Scientific achivements
                      Early work
                  <p>Dawn of Zander’s scientific career dates back to 1907-1908, when 
                      the scientist started thinking about design of space ships. Friedrich Zander 
                      was curious about shape of space vehicles, fuel storage, solar heat conversion,
                      moving force preferences and many more things. At that time, Zander made his 
                      first calculations on gas escape from vessels, on necessary work for escaping
                      Earth’s gravity field, and some other problems of astronautics. It was 1909,
                      when Zander first came up with an idea to use solid construction materials of
                      rockets as fuel. In 1909-1911 the scientist performed necessary calculations
                      for jet engine proper functioning, and determined amount of energy, required
                      for reaching high altitudes. After finishing Riga Polytechnic University in
                      1914, Friedrich Zander moved to Moscow, where worked for the rest of his life.
                      In 1917 Zander started systematic studies of interplanetary communications and
                      dedicated his entire life to this problem.</p>
                  <h3>Work in twenties</h3>
                      <p>In early twenties of the previous century, Friedrich Zander already developed
                      a number of novel suggestions for spaceship design: equipping extraterrestrial 
                      vehicles with wings during take-off for flying in dense atmospheric layers;
                      using air oxygen as oxidizer during initial stage of ascending; using no 
                      longer required ship parts as additional fuel; using wings for gliding
                      descent to Earth or other planets with atmosphere. Zander considered 
                      these ideas to help solving the problem of traveling to other planets
                      in the nearest future. Friedrich Zander also patiently searched for most 
                      appropriate fuels for rockets. In order to make combustion products leave
                      jet engines faster, the scientist suggested using high–energy metallic fuel,
                      however, Zander understood that metallic fuel wouldn’t make these products 
                      leave engines fast enough. The scientist kept searching for other fuels,
                      which could be a comprehensive solution for space traveling.</p>
                <section class="article-section">
                  <h3>Building of GRID-X</h3>
                      In 1928 Friedrich Zander started realizing his rocket technique ideas in practice.
                      Obsessed by an idea of high-energy metallic fuel, the scientist performed experiments 
                      on making light alloys, which contained magnesium, and burned them in air. 1928 was
                      the year Zander started projecting his first jet engine OR-1 (test rocket engine),
                      which would have helped the scientist checking his calculation techniques and gaining
                      first experimental data. OR-1 worked on gasoline and atmospheric oxygen.
                      Construction of OR-1 was anticipated with thorough engineering analysis.
                      The engine was tested during 1930-1932, and testing results allowed building 
                      much more advanced engines, using liquid oxygen as oxidizer.
                      In 1932-1933 GIRD under supervision of Friedrich Zander worked on building liquid-fuel
                      rocket engines for further installation on boost-glide vehicle RP-1 and rocket GIRD-X.
                      Results of experiments and calculations in theory of liquid-fuel rocket engines were
                      later generalized in Friedrich Zander’s book “Issues of fights by means of jet-driven
                      flying vehicles”, which came off the press in 1932.
          <p>You can find more information about Friedrich Zander in <a id="tribute-link" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Zander" target="_blank">wikipedia</a></p>
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