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Here you can Sed posuere consectetur est at lobortis. Donec ullamcorper nulla non metus auctor fringilla. Maecenas sed diam eget risus varius blandit sit amet non magna. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Praesent commodo cursus magna, vel scelerisque nisl consectetur et.

            
              <div class="container">
  <canvas></canvas>
  <p>Click &amp; drag to rotate</p>
</div>
            
          
!
            
              html { height: 100%; }

body {
  min-height: 100%;
  margin: 0;
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  background: #435;
  color: white;
  font-family: sans-serif;
  text-align: center;
}

canvas {
  display: block;
  margin: 0 auto;
  cursor: move;
}

            
          
!
            
              // -------------------------- utils -------------------------- //

var TAU = Math.PI * 2;

function extend( a, b ) {
  for ( var prop in b ) {
    a[ prop ] = b[ prop ];
  }
  return a;
}

function lerp( a, b, t ) {
  return ( b - a ) * t + a;
}

function modulo( num, div ) {
  return ( ( num % div ) + div ) % div;
}

// -------------------------- Vector3 -------------------------- //

function Vector3( position ) {
  this.set( position );
}

Vector3.prototype.set = function( pos ) {
  pos = Vector3.sanitize( pos );
  this.x = pos.x;
  this.y = pos.y;
  this.z = pos.z;
  return this;
};

Vector3.prototype.rotate = function( rotation ) {
  if ( !rotation ) {
    return;
  }
  this.rotateZ( rotation.z );
  this.rotateY( rotation.y );
  this.rotateX( rotation.x );
  return this;
};

Vector3.prototype.rotateZ = function( angle ) {
  rotateProperty( this, angle, 'x', 'y' );
};

Vector3.prototype.rotateX = function( angle ) {
  rotateProperty( this, angle, 'y', 'z' );
};

Vector3.prototype.rotateY = function( angle ) {
  rotateProperty( this, angle, 'x', 'z' );
};

function rotateProperty( vec, angle, propA, propB ) {
  if ( angle % TAU === 0 ) {
    return;
  }
  var cos = Math.cos( angle );
  var sin = Math.sin( angle );
  var a = vec[ propA ];
  var b = vec[ propB ];
  vec[ propA ] = a*cos - b*sin;
  vec[ propB ] = b*cos + a*sin;
}

Vector3.prototype.add = function( vec ) {
  if ( !vec ) {
    return;
  }
  vec = Vector3.sanitize( vec );
  this.x += vec.x;
  this.y += vec.y;
  this.z += vec.z;
  return this;
};

Vector3.prototype.multiply = function( vec ) {
  if ( !vec ) {
    return;
  }
  vec = Vector3.sanitize( vec );
  this.x *= vec.x;
  this.y *= vec.y;
  this.z *= vec.z;
  return this;
};

Vector3.prototype.lerp = function( vec, t ) {
  this.x = lerp( this.x, vec.x, t );
  this.y = lerp( this.y, vec.y, t );
  this.z = lerp( this.z, vec.z, t );
  return this;
};

// ----- utils ----- //

// add missing properties
Vector3.sanitize = function( vec ) {
  vec = vec || {};
  vec.x = vec.x || 0;
  vec.y = vec.y || 0;
  vec.z = vec.z || 0;
  return vec;
};

// -------------------------- PathAction -------------------------- //

function PathAction( method, points, previousPoint ) {
  this.method = method;
  this.points = points.map( mapVectorPoint );
  this.renderPoints = points.map( mapVectorPoint );
  this.previousPoint = previousPoint;
  this.endRenderPoint = this.renderPoints[ this.renderPoints.length - 1 ];
  // arc actions come with previous point & corner point
  // but require bezier control points
  if ( method == 'arc' ) {
    this.controlPoints = [ new Vector3(), new Vector3() ];
  }
}

function mapVectorPoint( point ) {
  return new Vector3( point );
}

PathAction.prototype.reset = function() {
  // reset renderPoints back to orignal points position
  var points = this.points;
  this.renderPoints.forEach( function( renderPoint, i ) {
    var point = points[i];
    renderPoint.set( point );
  });
};

PathAction.prototype.transform = function( translation, rotation, scale ) {
  this.renderPoints.forEach( function( renderPoint ) {
    renderPoint.multiply( scale );
    renderPoint.rotate( rotation );
    renderPoint.add( translation );
  });
};

PathAction.prototype.render = function( ctx ) {
  this[ this.method ]( ctx );
};

PathAction.prototype.move = function( ctx ) {
  var point = this.renderPoints[0];
  ctx.moveTo( point.x, point.y );
};

PathAction.prototype.line = function( ctx ) {
  var point = this.renderPoints[0];
  ctx.lineTo( point.x, point.y );
};

PathAction.prototype.bezier = function( ctx ) {
  var cp0 = this.renderPoints[0];
  var cp1 = this.renderPoints[1];
  var end = this.renderPoints[2];
  ctx.bezierCurveTo( cp0.x, cp0.y, cp1.x, cp1.y, end.x, end.y );
};

PathAction.prototype.arc = function( ctx ) {
  var prev = this.previousPoint;
  var corner = this.renderPoints[0];
  var end = this.renderPoints[1];
  var cp0 = this.controlPoints[0];
  var cp1 = this.controlPoints[1];
  cp0.set( prev ).lerp( corner, 9/16 );
  cp1.set( end ).lerp( corner, 9/16 );
  ctx.bezierCurveTo( cp0.x, cp0.y, cp1.x, cp1.y, end.x, end.y );
};

// -------------------------- Shape -------------------------- //

function Shape( options ) {
  this.create( options );
}

Shape.prototype.create = function( options ) {
  // default
  extend( this, Shape.defaults );
  // set options
  setOptions( this, options );

  this.updatePathActions();

  // transform
  this.translate = new Vector3( options.translate );
  this.rotate = new Vector3( options.rotate );
  var scale = extend( { x: 1, y: 1, z: 1 }, options.scale );
  this.scale = new Vector3( scale );
  // children
  this.children = [];
  if ( this.addTo ) {
    this.addTo.addChild( this );
  }
};

Shape.defaults = {
  stroke: true,
  fill: false,
  color: 'black',
  lineWidth: 1,
  closed: true,
  rendering: true,
  path: [ {} ],
};

var optionKeys = Object.keys( Shape.defaults ).concat([
  'rotate',
  'translate',
  'scale',
  'addTo',
  'width',
  'height',
]);

function setOptions( shape, options ) {
  for ( var key in options ) {
    if ( optionKeys.includes( key ) ) {
      shape[ key ] = options[ key ];
    }
  }
}

var actionNames = [
  'move',
  'line',
  'bezier',
  'arc',
];

// parse path into PathActions
Shape.prototype.updatePathActions = function() {
  var previousPoint;
  this.pathActions = this.path.map( function( pathPart, i ) {
    // pathPart can be just vector coordinates -> { x, y, z }
    // or path instruction -> { arc: [ {x0,y0,z0}, {x1,y1,z1} ] }
    var keys = Object.keys( pathPart );
    var method = keys[0];
    var points = pathPart[ method ];
    var isInstruction = keys.length === 1 && actionNames.includes( method ) &&
      Array.isArray( points );

    if ( !isInstruction ) {
      method = 'line';
      points = [ pathPart ];
    }

    // first action is always move
    method = i === 0 ? 'move' : method;
    // arcs require previous last point
    var pathAction = new PathAction( method, points, previousPoint );
    // update previousLastPoint
    previousPoint = pathAction.endRenderPoint;
    return pathAction;
  });
};

Shape.prototype.addChild = function( shape ) {
  this.children.push( shape );
};

// ----- update ----- //

Shape.prototype.update = function() {
  // update self
  this.reset();
  // update children
  this.children.forEach( function( child ) {
    child.update();
  });
  this.transform( this.translate, this.rotate, this.scale );
};

Shape.prototype.reset = function() {
  // reset pathAction render points
  this.pathActions.forEach( function( pathAction ) {
    pathAction.reset();
  });
};

Shape.prototype.transform = function( translation, rotation, scale ) {
  // transform points
  this.pathActions.forEach( function( pathAction ) {
    pathAction.transform( translation, rotation, scale );
  });
  // transform children
  this.children.forEach( function( child ) {
    child.transform( translation, rotation, scale );
  });
};

Shape.prototype.updateSortValue = function() {
  var sortValueTotal = 0;
  this.pathActions.forEach( function( pathAction ) {
    sortValueTotal += pathAction.endRenderPoint.z;
  });
  // average sort value of all points
  // def not geometrically correct, but works for me
  this.sortValue = sortValueTotal / this.pathActions.length;
};

// ----- render ----- //

Shape.prototype.render = function( ctx ) {
  var length = this.pathActions.length;
  if ( !this.rendering || !length ) {
    return;
  }
  var isDot = length == 1;
  if ( isDot ) {
    this.renderDot( ctx );
  } else {
    this.renderPath( ctx );
  }
};

// Safari does not render lines with no size, have to render circle instead
Shape.prototype.renderDot = function( ctx ) {
  ctx.fillStyle = this.color;
  var point = this.pathActions[0].endRenderPoint;
  ctx.beginPath();
  var radius = this.lineWidth/2;
  ctx.arc( point.x, point.y, radius, 0, TAU );
  ctx.fill();
};

Shape.prototype.renderPath = function( ctx ) {
  // set render properties
  ctx.fillStyle = this.color;
  ctx.strokeStyle = this.color;
  ctx.lineWidth = this.lineWidth;

  // render points
  ctx.beginPath();
  this.pathActions.forEach( function( pathAction ) {
    pathAction.render( ctx );
  });
  var isTwoPoints = this.pathActions.length == 2 &&
    this.pathActions[1].method == 'line';
  if ( !isTwoPoints && this.closed ) {
    ctx.closePath();
  }
  if ( this.stroke ) {
    ctx.stroke();
  }
  if ( this.fill ) {
    ctx.fill();
  }
};

// return Array of self & all child shapes
Shape.prototype.getShapes = function() {
  var shapes = [ this ];
  this.children.forEach( function( child ) {
    var childShapes = child.getShapes();
    shapes = shapes.concat( childShapes );
  });
  return shapes;
};

Shape.prototype.copy = function( options ) {
  // copy options
  var shapeOptions = {};
  optionKeys.forEach( function( key ) {
    shapeOptions[ key ] = this[ key ];
  }, this );
  // add set options
  setOptions( shapeOptions, options );
  var ShapeClass = this.constructor;
  return new ShapeClass( shapeOptions );
};

// -------------------------- Ellipse -------------------------- //

function Ellipse( options ) {
  options = this.setPath( options );
  // always keep open
  // fixes overlap bug when lineWidth is greater than radius
  options.closed = false;
  this.create( options );
}

Ellipse.prototype = Object.create( Shape.prototype );
Ellipse.prototype.constructor = Ellipse;

Ellipse.prototype.setPath = function( options ) {
  var w = options.width/2;
  var h = options.height/2;
  options.path = [
    { x: 0, y: -h },
    { arc: [ // top right
      { x: w, y: -h },
      { x: w, y: 0 },
    ]},
    { arc: [ // bottom right
      { x: w, y: h },
      { x: 0, y: h },
    ]},
    { arc: [ // bottom left
      { x: -w, y: h },
      { x: -w, y: 0 },
    ]},
    { arc: [ // bottom left
      { x: -w, y: -h },
      { x: 0, y: -h },
    ]},
  ];
  return options;
};

// -------------------------- Group -------------------------- //

function Group( options ) {
  this.create( options );
}

Group.prototype.create = function( options ) {
  // set options
  setGroupOptions( this, options );

  // transform
  this.translate = Vector3.sanitize( this.translate );
  this.rotate = Vector3.sanitize( this.rotate );
  // children
  this.children = [];
  if ( this.addTo ) {
    this.addTo.addChild( this );
  }
};

var groupOptionKeys = [
  'rotate',
  'translate',
  'addTo',
];

function setGroupOptions( shape, options ) {
  for ( var key in options ) {
    if ( groupOptionKeys.includes( key ) ) {
      shape[ key ] = options[ key ];
    }
  }
}


Group.prototype.addChild = function( shape ) {
  this.children.push( shape );
};

// ----- update ----- //

Group.prototype.update = function() {
  // update self
  this.reset();
  // update children
  this.children.forEach( function( child ) {
    child.update();
  });
  this.transform( this.translate, this.rotate, this.scale );
};

Group.prototype.reset = function() {};

Group.prototype.transform = function( translation, rotation, scale ) {
  // transform children
  this.children.forEach( function( child ) {
    child.transform( translation, rotation, scale );
  });
};

Group.prototype.updateSortValue = function() {
  var sortValueTotal = 0;
  this.children.forEach( function( child ) {
    child.updateSortValue();
    sortValueTotal += child.sortValue;
  });
  // TODO sort children?
  // average sort value of all points
  // def not geometrically correct, but works for me
  this.sortValue = sortValueTotal / this.children.length;
};

// ----- render ----- //

Group.prototype.render = function( ctx ) {
  this.children.forEach( function( child ) {
    child.render( ctx );
  });
};

// do not include children, group handles rendering & sorting internally
Group.prototype.getShapes = function() {
  return [ this ];
};

// -------------------------- Dragger -------------------------- //

// quick & dirty drag event stuff
// messes up if multiple pointers/touches

// event support, default to mouse events
var downEvent = 'mousedown';
var moveEvent = 'mousemove';
var upEvent = 'mouseup';
if ( window.PointerEvent ) {
  // PointerEvent, Chrome
  downEvent = 'pointerdown';
  moveEvent = 'pointermove';
  upEvent = 'pointerup';
} else if ( 'ontouchstart' in window ) {
  // Touch Events, iOS Safari
  downEvent = 'touchstart';
  moveEvent = 'touchmove';
  upEvent = 'touchend';
}

function noop() {}

function Dragger( options ) {
  this.startElement = options.startElement;
  this.onPointerDown = options.onPointerDown || noop;
  this.onPointerMove = options.onPointerMove || noop;
  this.onPointerUp = options.onPointerUp || noop;
  
  this.startElement.addEventListener( downEvent, this );
}

Dragger.prototype.handleEvent = function( event ) {
  var method = this[ 'on' + event.type ];
  if ( method ) {
    method.call( this, event );
  }
};

Dragger.prototype.onmousedown =
Dragger.prototype.onpointerdown = function( event ) {
  this.pointerDown( event, event );
};

Dragger.prototype.ontouchstart = function( event ) {
  this.pointerDown( event, event.changedTouches[0] );
};

Dragger.prototype.pointerDown = function( event, pointer ) {
  event.preventDefault();
  this.dragStartX = pointer.pageX;
  this.dragStartY = pointer.pageY;
  window.addEventListener( moveEvent, this );
  window.addEventListener( upEvent, this );
  this.onPointerDown( pointer );
};

Dragger.prototype.ontouchmove = function( event ) {
  // HACK, moved touch may not be first
  this.pointerMove( event, event.changedTouches[0] );
};

Dragger.prototype.onmousemove =
Dragger.prototype.onpointermove = function( event ) {
  this.pointerMove( event, event );
};

Dragger.prototype.pointerMove = function( event, pointer ) {
  event.preventDefault();
  var moveX = pointer.pageX - this.dragStartX;
  var moveY = pointer.pageY - this.dragStartY;
  this.onPointerMove( pointer, moveX, moveY );
};

Dragger.prototype.onmouseup = 
Dragger.prototype.onpointerup =
Dragger.prototype.ontouchend =
Dragger.prototype.pointerUp = function( event ) {
  window.removeEventListener( moveEvent, this );
  window.removeEventListener( upEvent, this );
  this.onPointerUp( event );
};

function BokehShape( options ) {
  this.create( options );
  this.bokehSize = options.bokehSize || 5;
  this.bokehLimit = options.bokehLimit || 64;
}

BokehShape.prototype = Object.create( Shape.prototype );

BokehShape.prototype.updateBokeh = function() {
  // bokeh 0 -> 1
  this.bokeh = Math.abs( this.sortValue ) / this.bokehLimit;
  this.bokeh = Math.max( 0, Math.min( 1, this.bokeh ) );
  return this.bokeh;
};

BokehShape.prototype.getBokehLineWidth = function() {
  
  return this.lineWidth + this.bokehSize * this.bokeh * this.bokeh;
};

BokehShape.prototype.getBokehAlpha = function() {
  var revBokeh = 1 - this.bokeh;
  revBokeh *= revBokeh;
  return revBokeh * 0.8 + 0.2;
};



// Safari does not render lines with no size, have to render circle instead
BokehShape.prototype.renderDot = function( ctx ) {
  this.updateBokeh();
  ctx.globalAlpha = this.getBokehAlpha();
  ctx.fillStyle = this.color;
  var point = this.pathActions[0].endRenderPoint;
  ctx.beginPath();
  var radius = this.getBokehLineWidth()/2;
  ctx.arc( point.x, point.y, radius, 0, TAU );
  ctx.fill();
  ctx.globalAlpha = 1;
};

BokehShape.prototype.renderPath = function( ctx ) {
  this.updateBokeh();
  ctx.globalAlpha = this.getBokehAlpha();
  // set render properties
  ctx.fillStyle = this.color;
  ctx.strokeStyle = this.color;
  ctx.lineWidth = this.getBokehLineWidth();

  // render points
  ctx.beginPath();
  this.pathActions.forEach( function( pathAction ) {
    pathAction.render( ctx );
  });
  var isTwoPoints = this.pathActions.length == 2 &&
    this.pathActions[1].method == 'line';
  if ( !isTwoPoints && this.closed ) {
    ctx.closePath();
  }
  if ( this.stroke ) {
    ctx.stroke();
  }
  if ( this.fill ) {
    ctx.fill();
  }
  ctx.globalAlpha = 1;
};

/* jshint unused: false */

function makeMadeline( camera, isGood, colors, rotation ) {

  var rotor = new Shape({
    rendering: false,
    addTo: camera,
    rotate: rotation,
  });

  var body = new Shape({
    rendering: false,
    addTo: rotor,
    rotate: { x: TAU/8 },
    translate: { z: 48 },
  });

  var head = new Shape({
    rendering: false,
    addTo: body,
    translate: { y: -11, z: 2 },
    rotate: { x: -TAU/8 },
  });

  // face
  var face = new Ellipse({
    width: 6,
    height: 6,
    addTo: head,
    translate: { z: -4 },
    lineWidth: 8,
    color: colors.skin,
  });

  var eyeGroup = new Group({
    addTo: face,
    translate: { z: -face.lineWidth/2 + 0.5 },
  });


  // eyes
  [ -1, 1 ].forEach( function( xSide ) {
    // cheek blush
    if ( isGood ) {
      new Ellipse({
        width: 2,
        height: 1.3,
        addTo: eyeGroup,
        translate: { x: 4.5*xSide, y: 3, z: 1 },
        rotate: { y: TAU/16*xSide },
        lineWidth: 1,
        color: '#FA8',
        fill: true,
      });
    }


    var eyeX = 3.5*xSide;

    // eye
    var eyeWhite = new Ellipse({
      width: 0.75,
      height: 1.5,
      addTo: eyeGroup,
      color: colors.eye,
      translate: { x: eyeX },
      lineWidth: 2,
      fill: true,
    });

    // eye brow
    new Shape({
      path: [
        { x: -1, y: 0 },
        { arc: [
          { x: -1, y: -1 },
          { x: 0, y: -1 }
        ]},
        { arc: [
          { x: 1, y: -1 },
          { x: 1, y: 0 }
        ]},
      ],
      addTo: eyeGroup,
      translate: { x: eyeX, y: -3 },
      scale: { x: 1.5, y: 0.6 },
      rotate: { z: 0.15*xSide * (isGood ? 1 : -1) },
      color: colors.hair,
      lineWidth: 1,
      fill: true,
    });



  });


  // hair ball
  new Shape({
    path: [
      { x: -1 },
      { x: 1 },
      { z: 4 },
    ],
    addTo: head,
    translate: { y: -4, z: 1 },
    lineWidth: 18,
    color: colors.hair,
  });

  var bang = new Shape({
    path: [
      {},
      { arc: [
        { z: -4, y: 4 },
        { z: 0, y: 8 },
      ]},
    ],
    addTo: head,
    translate: { x: 2, y: -7.5, z: -6 },
    rotate: { x: -0.5, z: -0.5 },
    lineWidth: 4,
    color: colors.hair,
    closed: false,
  });
  bang.copy({
    translate: { x: 5, y: -6, z: -5 },
    rotate: { x: 0.3, z: -0.5 },
  });
  bang.copy({
    translate: { x: 5, y: -6, z: -3 },
    rotate: { y: 0.7, z: -1 },
  });

  // left side
  bang.copy({
    translate: { x: -2, y: -7.5, z: -6 },
    rotate: { x: 0, z: TAU/16*6 },
  });
  bang.copy({
    translate: { x: -5, y: -6, z: -5 },
    rotate: { x: 0, z: TAU/4 },
  });
  bang.copy({
    translate: { x: -5, y: -6, z: -3 },
    rotate: { y: -0.7, z: 1 },
  });

  // hair cover
  new Shape({
    path: [
      { x: -3 },
      { x:  3 },
    ],
    addTo: head,
    lineWidth: 7,
    translate: { y: -8, z: -5 },
    color: colors.hair,
  });

  // trail locks

  var trailLock = new Shape({
    path: [
      { y: -4, z: 0 },
      { bezier: [
        { y: -10, z: 14 },
        { y: 0, z: 16 },
        { y: 0, z: 26 }
      ]},
    ],
    addTo: head,
    translate: { z: 4, y: 0 },
    lineWidth: 10,
    color: colors.hair,
    closed: false,
  });

  trailLock.copy({
    translate: { x: -3, z: 4 },
    rotate: { z: -TAU/8 },
    lineWidth: 8,
  });
  trailLock.copy({
    translate: { x: 3, z: 4 },
    rotate: { z: TAU/8 },
    lineWidth: 8,
  });
  trailLock.copy({
    translate: { y: 2 },
    // rotate: { z: TAU/2 },
    scale: { y: 0.5 },
    lineWidth: 8,
  });

  // ----- torso ----- //

  // 2nd rib
  var torsoRib = new Ellipse({
    width: 12,
    height: 10,
    addTo: body,
    rotate: { x: TAU/4 },
    translate: { y: -1 },
    lineWidth: 6,
    color: colors.parkaLight,
    fill: true,
  });
  // neck rib
  torsoRib.copy({
    width: 6,
    height: 6,
    translate: { y: -5 },
  });
  // 3rd rib
  torsoRib.copy({
    translate: { y: 3 },
  });
  // 4th rib
  torsoRib.copy({
    translate: { y: 7 },
    color: colors.parkaDark,
  });
  // waist
  new Ellipse({
    width: 10,
    height: 8,
    addTo: body,
    rotate: { x: TAU/4 },
    translate: { y: 11 },
    lineWidth: 4,
    color: colors.tight,
    fill: true,
  });

  // arms
  [ -1, 1 ].forEach( function( xSide ) {
    // shoulder ball
    new Shape({
      addTo: body,
      lineWidth: 6,
      translate: { x: 6*xSide, y: -5, z: 1 },
      color: colors.parkaLight,
    });

    var shoulderJoint = new Shape({
      rendering: false,
      addTo: body,
      translate: { x: 9*xSide, y: -3, z: 2 },
    });

    // top shoulder rib
    var armRib = new Ellipse({
      width: 2,
      height: 2,
      rotate: { x: TAU/4 },
      addTo: shoulderJoint,
      translate: { x: 0*xSide },
      lineWidth: 6,
      color: colors.parkaLight,
      fill: true,
    });
    armRib.copy({
      translate: { y: 4 },
    });

    var elbowJoint = new Shape({
      rendering: false,
      addTo: shoulderJoint,
      translate: { y: 8 },
    });

    armRib.copy({
      addTo: elbowJoint,
      translate: { x: 0, y: 0 },
    });
    armRib.copy({
      addTo: elbowJoint,
      translate: { y: 4 },
      color: colors.parkaDark,
    });

    // hand
    new Shape({
      addTo: elbowJoint,
      translate: { y: 9, z: -1 },
      lineWidth: 8,
      color: colors.skin,
    });

    if ( xSide == 1 ) {
      // extend left hand
      shoulderJoint.rotate = Vector3.sanitize({ x: -TAU/8*3, z: -TAU/32 });
    } else {
      // back right hand
      shoulderJoint.rotate = Vector3.sanitize({ z: TAU/16*2, x: TAU/16*2 });
      elbowJoint.rotate = Vector3.sanitize({ z: TAU/8 });
    }

    // ----- legs ----- //
    var knee = { y: 7 };
    var thigh = new Shape({
      path: [ { y: 0 }, knee ],
      addTo: body,
      translate: { x: 4*xSide, y: 13 },
      lineWidth: 8,
      color: colors.tight,
    });

    var shin = new Shape({
      path: [ { y: 0 }, { y: 8 } ],
      addTo: thigh,
      lineWidth: 6,
      translate: knee,
      color: colors.tight,
    });

    if ( xSide == -1 ) {
      // bend right leg
      thigh.rotate = Vector3.sanitize({ x: -TAU/16*3, z: TAU/16 });
      shin.rotate = Vector3.sanitize({ x: TAU/16*5 });
    }

  });

  // butt
  new Shape({
    path: [
      { x: -3 },
      { x: 3 },
    ],
    rendering: false,
    addTo: body,
    translate: { y: 11, z: 2 },
    lineWidth: 8,
    color: colors.tight,
  });

}


function makeBird( options ) {

  var spin = options.spin || 0;

  var arrow = new Shape({
    rendering: false,
    addTo: options.addTo,
    scale: { x: 2/3, y: 2/3, z: 2/3 },
    rotate: { z: spin },
  });

  var bird = new Group({
    addTo: arrow,
    translate: { x: 87 },
    rotate: { x: spin },
  });

  // bird body
  new Shape({
    path: [
      { x: -3, y: 0 },
      { arc: [
        { x: -2, y: 1.5 },
        { x: 0, y: 1.5 },
      ]},
      { arc: [
        { x: 2, y: 1.5 },
        { x: 2, y: 0 },
      ]},
    ],
    addTo: bird,
    translate: { x: 0.5 },
    lineWidth: 3,
    color: options.color,
    fill: true,
  });

  // bird head
  new Shape({
    translate: { x: 4, y: -1 },
    addTo: bird,
    lineWidth: 4,
    color: options.color,
  });
  
  // beak
  new Shape({
    path: [
      { x: 0, y: -1 },
      { x: 3, y: 0 },
      { x: 0, y: 1 },
    ],
    addTo: bird,
    translate: { x: 5, y: -1 },
    lineWidth: 1,
    color: options.color,
    fill: true,
  });

  // tail feather
  new Shape({
    path: [
      { x: -3, z: -2 },
      { x:  0, z:  0 },
      { x: -3, z:  2 },
    ],
    addTo: bird,
    translate: { x: -4, y: 0 },
    lineWidth: 2,
    color: options.color,
    fill: true,
  });
  
  var wing = new Shape({
    path: [
      { x: 3, y: 0 },
      { x: -1, y: -9 },
      { arc: [
        { x: -5, y: -4 },
        { x: -3, y: 0 },
      ]},
    ],
    addTo: bird,
    translate: { z: -1.5},
    rotate: { x: TAU/8 },
    lineWidth: 1,
    color: options.color,
    fill: true,
  });

  wing.copy({
    translate: { z: 1.5},
    scale: { z: -1 },
    rotate: { x: -TAU/8 },
  });

}

/* globals makeMadeline, BokehShape, makeBird */

// -------------------------- demo -------------------------- //

var canvas = document.querySelector('canvas');
var ctx = canvas.getContext('2d');
var w = 160;
var h = 160;
var minWindowSize = Math.min( window.innerWidth, window.innerHeight );
var zoom = Math.min( 5, Math.floor( minWindowSize / w ) );
var pixelRatio = window.devicePixelRatio || 1;
zoom *= pixelRatio;
var canvasWidth = canvas.width = w * zoom;
var canvasHeight = canvas.height = h * zoom;
// set canvas screen size
if ( pixelRatio > 1 ) {
  canvas.style.width = canvasWidth / pixelRatio + 'px';
  canvas.style.height = canvasHeight / pixelRatio + 'px';
}

var isRotating = true;

var madColor = {
  skin: '#FD9',
  hair: '#D53',
  parkaLight: '#67F',
  parkaDark: '#35D',
  tight: '#742',
  eye: '#333',
};
var badColor = {
  skin: '#EBC',
  hair: '#D4B',
  parkaLight: '#85A',
  parkaDark: '#527',
  tight: '#412',
  eye: '#D02',
};

var glow = 'hsla(60, 100%, 80%, 0.3)';
var featherGold = '#FE5';

var camera = new Shape({
  rendering: false,
  rotate: { y: TAU/4 },
});

// -- illustration shapes --- //

makeMadeline( camera, true, madColor );
makeMadeline( camera, false, badColor, { y: TAU/2 } );


// ----- feather ----- //

var feather = new Shape({
  rendering: false,
  addTo: camera,
  rotate: { y: -TAU/4 },
});

( function() {

  var featherPartCount = 8;
  var radius = 12;
  var angleX = (TAU/featherPartCount) / 2;
  var sector = (TAU * radius)/2 / featherPartCount;

  for ( var i=0; i < featherPartCount; i++ ) {
    var curve = Math.cos( (i/featherPartCount) * TAU*3/4 + TAU*1/4 );
    var x = 4 - curve*2;
    var y0 = sector/2;
    // var y2 = -sector/2;
    var isLast = i == featherPartCount - 1;
    var y3 = isLast ? sector * -1 : -y0;
    var z1 = -radius + 2 + curve*-1.5;
    var z2 = isLast ? -radius : -radius;
    var barb = new Shape({
      path: [
        { x: 0, y: y0, z: -radius },
        { x: x, y: -sector/2, z: z1 },
        { x: x, y: -sector*3/4, z: z1 },
        { x: 0, y: y3, z: z2 },
      ],
      addTo: feather,
      rotate: { x: angleX * -i + TAU/8 },
      lineWidth: 1,
      color: featherGold,
      fill: true,
    });
    barb.copy({
      scale: { x: -1 },
    });
  }

  // rachis
  var rachis = new Shape({
    path: [
      { y: -radius },
      { arc: [
        { y: -radius, z: -radius },
        { y: 0, z: -radius },
      ]},
      { arc: [
        { y: radius, z: -radius },
        { y: radius, z: 0 },
      ]},
    ],
    addTo: feather,
    lineWidth: 2,
    color: featherGold,
    closed: false,
  });
  rachis.copy({
    lineWidth: 8,
    color: glow,
    rotate: { x: -0.5 }
  });
})();

// ----- rods ----- //

( function() {

  var rodCount = 14;
  for ( var i=0; i < rodCount; i++ ) {
    var zRotor = new Shape({
      rendering: false,
      addTo: camera,
      rotate: { z: TAU/rodCount * i },
    });

    var y0 = 32;
    var y1 = y0 + 2 + Math.random()*24;
    new BokehShape({
      path: [
        { y: y0 },
        { y: y1 },
      ],
      addTo: zRotor,
      rotate: { x: ( Math.random() * 2 - 1 ) * TAU/8 },
      color: madColor.skin,
      lineWidth: 1,
      bokehSize: 6,
      bokehLimit: 70,
    });
  }

})();

// dots

( function() {
  var dotCount = 64;

  for ( var i=0; i < dotCount; i++ ) {
    var yRotor = new Shape({
      rendering: false,
      addTo: camera,
      rotate: { y: TAU/dotCount * i },
    });

    new BokehShape({
      path: [
        { z: 40*(1 - Math.random()*Math.random()) + 32 },
      ],
      addTo: yRotor,
      rotate: { x: ( Math.random() * 2 - 1 ) * TAU*3/16 },
      color: badColor.skin,
      lineWidth: 1 + Math.random(),
      bokehSize: 6,
      bokehLimit: 74,
    });
  }

})();

// ----- birds ----- //

var birdRotor = new Shape({
  rendering: false,
  addTo: camera,
  rotate: { y: TAU*1/8 },
});

makeBird({
  addTo: birdRotor,
  color: madColor.parkaLight,
  spin: TAU/2,
});

makeBird({
  addTo: birdRotor,
  color: featherGold,
  spin: -TAU * 3/8,
});

makeBird({
  addTo: birdRotor,
  color: 'white',
  spin: -TAU/4,
});

makeBird({
  addTo: birdRotor,
  color: madColor.hair,
  spin: -TAU/8,
});

makeBird({
  addTo: birdRotor,
  color: madColor.parkaDark,
  spin: TAU/8,
});

// -----  ----- //

var shapes = camera.getShapes();

// -- animate --- //

var rotateSpeed = -TAU/60;
var xClock = 0;
var then = new Date() - 1/60;

function animate() {
  update();
  render();
  requestAnimationFrame( animate );
}

animate();

// -- update -- //

function update() {
  var now = new Date();
  var delta = now - then;
  // auto rotate
  if ( isRotating ) {
    var theta = rotateSpeed/60 * delta;
    camera.rotate.y += theta;
    xClock += theta/4;
    camera.rotate.x = Math.sin( xClock ) * TAU/12;
  }

  // rotate
  camera.update();
  shapes.forEach( function( shape ) {
    shape.updateSortValue();
  });
  // perspective sort
  shapes.sort( function( a, b ) {
    return b.sortValue - a.sortValue;
  });

  then = now;
}

// -- render -- //

function render() {
  ctx.clearRect( 0, 0, canvasWidth, canvasHeight );
  ctx.lineCap = 'round';
  ctx.lineJoin = 'round';

  ctx.save();
  ctx.scale( zoom, zoom );
  ctx.translate( w/2, h/2 );

  shapes.forEach( function( shape ) {
    shape.render( ctx );
  });

  ctx.restore();
}

// ----- inputs ----- //

// click drag to rotate
var dragStartAngleX, dragStartAngleY;

new Dragger({
  startElement: canvas,
  onPointerDown: function() {
    isRotating = false;
    dragStartAngleX = camera.rotate.x;
    dragStartAngleY = camera.rotate.y;
  },
  onPointerMove: function( pointer, moveX, moveY ) {
    var angleXMove = moveY / canvasWidth * TAU;
    var angleYMove = moveX / canvasWidth * TAU;
    camera.rotate.x = dragStartAngleX + angleXMove;
    camera.rotate.y = dragStartAngleY + angleYMove;
  },
});

            
          
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