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HTML

              
                <div class="container">
  <header>
    <h1>David's house of stuff</h1>
    <button class="profile-button">Profile</button>
  </header>
    
  <main>
    <h2 class="product-list-title">Stuff you can buy</h2>
    <ul class="product-list">
      <li class="product-list-item">Velcro shoes</li>
      <li class="product-list-item product-list-item--special">Male fish (special!)</li>
      <li class="product-list-item">Corned beef (sandwich not included)</li>
      <li class="product-list-item">Fake teeth fossils</li>
      <li class="product-list-item">Fifth product</li>
    </ul>
  </main>
  
  <ul class="profile-menu" hidden>
    <li class="profile-menu-item">Sign in</li>
    <li class="profile-menu-item">Sign out</li>
    <li class="profile-menu-item">Sign up</li>
    <li class="profile-menu-item">Sign on</li>
    <li class="profile-menu-item">Sign away</li>
  </ul>
  
  <div class="modal">
    You are about to be signed out because of inactivity. Do anything to continue your session.
  </div>
</div>
              
            
!

CSS

              
                $z-index-header: 1;
$z-index-side-nav: 2;
$z-index-drop-down-menu: 3;
$z-index-full-screen-modal: 4;

@mixin new-stacking-context {
  position: relative;
  z-index: 0;
}

@mixin shadow {
  box-shadow: 0 3px 6px rgba(0,0,0,0.16), 0 3px 6px rgba(0,0,0,0.23);
}

body {
  font-family: -apple-system,BlinkMacSystemFont,"Segoe UI",Roboto,"Helvetica Neue",Arial,sans-serif,"Apple Color Emoji","Segoe UI Emoji","Segoe UI Symbol";
  color: #222;
  background: snow;
}

* {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

h1,
h2,
p,
ul,
li {
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
  font-weight: 400;
}

li {
  list-style-type: none;
}

.container {
  position: relative;
  max-width: 600px;
  margin: 0 auto;
  border: 1px solid lightgrey;
}

header {
  position: relative;
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  padding: 10px;
  background: seagreen;
  color: mintcream;
  @include shadow;
  z-index: $z-index-header;
}

main {
  background: white;
}

.profile-button {
  margin-left: auto;
  background: none;
  border: none;
  color: inherit;
  font-size: inherit;
  text-decoration: underline;
  padding: 10px;
}

.profile-menu {
  position: absolute;
  top: 50px;
  right: 15px;
  width: 150px;
  background: white;
  @include shadow;
  z-index: $z-index-drop-down-menu;
  
  &:before {
    content: "▲";
    color: white;
    position: absolute;
    top: -17px;
    right: 10px;
    font-size: 20px;
  }
}

.profile-menu-item {
  padding: 10px 20px;
  
  &:not(:first-child) {
    border-top: 1px solid lightgrey;
  }
}

.product-list {
  @include new-stacking-context;
}

.product-list-title {
  padding: 50px 20px 20px;
}

.product-list-item {
  padding: 20px;
  border-top: 1px solid lightgrey;
  position: relative;
  
  &--special {
    background: honeydew;
  }
  
  &:hover {
    @include shadow;
    z-index: 1; // this could be 9999999 and it wouldn't matter. It's contained within .product-list
  }
}

.modal {
  display: none; // comment out for testing
  position: absolute;
  top: 0;
  left: 0;
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  background: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.8);
  color: white;
  font-size: 30px;
  padding: 50px;
  text-align: center;
  pointer-events: none; // so you can click the profile button while this is 'open'
  z-index: $z-index-full-screen-modal;
}
              
            
!

JS

              
                const profileButtonEl = document.querySelector('.profile-button');
const profileMenuEl = document.querySelector('.profile-menu');

profileButtonEl.addEventListener('click', () => {
  profileMenuEl.hidden = !profileMenuEl.hidden;
});

              
            
!
999px

Console