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  <h1>Pong</h1>
  <h3><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pong">(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)</a></h3>
  <p><i><b>Pong</b></i> is one of the earliest <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_game" title="Arcade game">arcade</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game" title="Video game">video games</a>. It is a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_tennis" title="Table tennis">table tennis</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_game" title="Sports game">sports game</a> featuring simple <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2D_computer_graphics" title="2D computer graphics">two-dimensional graphics</a>. The game was originally manufactured by <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari,_Inc" class="mw-redirect" title="Atari, Inc">Atari</a>, which released it in 1972. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Alcorn" title="Allan Alcorn">Allan Alcorn</a> created <i>Pong</i> as a training exercise assigned to him by Atari co-founder <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nolan_Bushnell" title="Nolan Bushnell">Nolan Bushnell</a>. Bushnell based the idea on an electronic ping-pong game included in the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnavox_Odyssey" title="Magnavox Odyssey">Magnavox Odyssey</a>, which later resulted in a lawsuit against Atari. Surprised by the quality of Alcorn's work, Bushnell and Atari co-founder Ted Dabney decided to manufacture the game.</p>
  <p><i>Pong</i> quickly became a success and was the first commercially successful video game, which helped to establish the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_industry" title="Video game industry">video game industry</a> along with the first home console, the Magnavox Odyssey. Soon after its release, several companies began producing games that copied <i>Pong</i><span class="nowrap" style="padding-left:0.1em;">'</span>s gameplay, and eventually released new types of games. As a result, Atari encouraged its staff to produce more innovative games. The company released several sequels that built upon the original's gameplay by adding new features. During the 1975 Christmas season, Atari released a home version of <i>Pong</i> exclusively through <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sears,_Roebuck_and_Company" class="mw-redirect" title="Sears, Roebuck and Company">Sears</a> retail stores. It was also a commercial success and led to numerous copies. The game has been remade on numerous home and portable platforms following its release. <i>Pong</i> is part of the permanent collection of the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smithsonian_Institution" title="Smithsonian Institution">Smithsonian Institution</a> in Washington, D.C. due to its cultural impact. <i>Pong</i> has been referenced and parodied in multiple television shows and video games, and has been a part of several video game and cultural exhibitions.</p>
  
  <h3>Gameplay</h3>
  <p><i>Pong</i> is a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2D_computer_graphics" title="2D computer graphics">two-dimensional</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_game" title="Sports game">sports game</a> that simulates <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_tennis" title="Table tennis">table tennis</a>. The player controls an in-game paddle by moving it vertically across the left or right side of the screen. They can compete against another player controlling a second paddle on the opposing side. Players use the paddles to hit a ball back and forth. The goal is for each player to reach eleven points before the opponent; points are earned when one fails to return the ball to the other.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">[1]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Fever_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Fever-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-2_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-2-3">[3]</a></sup></p>

  <h3>Development and history</h3>
  <p><i>Pong</i> was the first game developed by <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari,_Inc" class="mw-redirect" title="Atari, Inc">Atari</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-1_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-1-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-3_5-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-3-5">[5]</a></sup> After producing <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_Space" title="Computer Space">Computer Space</a></i>, Bushnell decided to form a company to produce more games by licensing ideas to other companies. The first contract was with <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bally_Manufacturing_Corporation" class="mw-redirect" title="Bally Manufacturing Corporation">Bally Manufacturing Corporation</a> for a driving game.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-2_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-2-3">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-1_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-1-6">[6]</a></sup> Soon after the founding, Bushnell hired <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Alcorn" title="Allan Alcorn">Allan Alcorn</a> because of his experience with electrical engineering and computer science; Bushnell and Dabney also had previously worked with him at <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampex" title="Ampex">Ampex</a>. Prior to working at Atari, Alcorn had no experience with video games.<sup id="cite_ref-AlcornInterview_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AlcornInterview-7">[7]</a></sup> To acclimate Alcorn to creating games, Bushnell gave him a project secretly meant to be a warm-up exercise.<sup id="cite_ref-AlcornInterview_7-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AlcornInterview-7">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-AmerHert_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AmerHert-8">[8]</a></sup> Bushnell told Alcorn that he had a contract with <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Electric" title="General Electric">General Electric</a> for a product, and asked Alcorn to create a simple game with one moving spot, two paddles, and digits for score keeping.<sup id="cite_ref-AlcornInterview_7-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AlcornInterview-7">[7]</a></sup> In 2011, Bushnell stated that the game was inspired by previous versions of electronic tennis he had played before; Bushnell played a version on a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDP-1" title="PDP-1">PDP-1</a> computer in 1964 while attending college.<sup id="cite_ref-GI-215_9-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-GI-215-9">[9]</a></sup> However, Alcorn has claimed it was in direct response to Bushnell's viewing of the Magnavox Odyssey's Tennis game.<sup id="cite_ref-AlcornInterview_7-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AlcornInterview-7">[7]</a></sup> In May 1972, Bushnell had visited the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnavox" title="Magnavox">Magnavox</a> Profit Caravan in <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burlingame,_California" title="Burlingame, California">Burlingame, California</a> where he played the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnavox_Odyssey" title="Magnavox Odyssey">Magnavox Odyssey</a> demonstration, specifically the table tennis game.<sup id="cite_ref-RB-History_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RB-History-10">[10]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-visit_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-visit-11">[11]</a></sup> Though he thought the game lacked quality, seeing it prompted Bushnell to assign the project to Alcorn.<sup id="cite_ref-GI-215_9-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-GI-215-9">[9]</a></sup></p>
  <p>Alcorn first examined Bushnell's schematics for <i>Computer Space</i>, but found them to be illegible. He went on to create his own designs based on his knowledge of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor%E2%80%93transistor_logic" title="Transistor–transistor logic">transistor–transistor logic</a> and Bushnell's game. Feeling the basic game was too boring, Alcorn added features to give the game more appeal. He divided the paddle into eight segments to change the ball's angle of return. For example, the center segments return the ball a 90° angle in relation to the paddle, while the outer segments return the ball at smaller angles. He also made the ball accelerate the longer it remained in play; missing the ball reset the speed.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-2_3-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-2-3">[3]</a></sup> Another feature was that the in-game paddles were unable to reach the top of the screen. This was caused by a simple circuit that had an inherent defect. Instead of dedicating time to fixing the defect, Alcorn decided it gave the game more difficulty and helped limit the time the game could be played; he imagined two skilled players being able to play forever otherwise.<sup id="cite_ref-AlcornInterview_7-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AlcornInterview-7">[7]</a></sup></p>
  <p>Three months into development, Bushnell told Alcorn he wanted the game to feature realistic sound effects and a roaring crowd.<sup id="cite_ref-AlcornInterview_7-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AlcornInterview-7">[7]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ArtOfGameWorlds_12-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ArtOfGameWorlds-12">[12]</a></sup> Dabney wanted the game to "boo" and "hiss" when a player lost a round. Alcorn had limited space available for the necessary electronics and was unaware of how to create such sounds with <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_electronics" title="Digital electronics">digital circuits</a>. After inspecting the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_signal_generator#Sync_pulse_generators_(SPG)" class="mw-redirect" title="Video signal generator">sync generator</a>, he discovered that it could generate different tones and used those for the game's sound effects.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-2_3-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-2-3">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-AlcornInterview_7-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AlcornInterview-7">[7]</a></sup> To construct the prototype, Alcorn purchased a $75 <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hitachi" title="Hitachi">Hitachi</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black-and-white" class="mw-redirect" title="Black-and-white">black-and-white</a> television set from a local store, placed it into a 4-foot (1.2&nbsp;m) wooden <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_cabinet" title="Arcade cabinet">cabinet</a>, and soldered the wires into boards to create the necessary circuitry. The prototype impressed Bushnell and Dabney so much that they felt it could be a profitable product and decided to test its marketability.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-2_3-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-2-3">[3]</a></sup></p>
  <p>In August 1972, Bushnell and Alcorn installed the <i>Pong</i> prototype at a local bar, <i>Andy Capp's Tavern</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13">[13]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">[14]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15">[15]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">[16]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">[17]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">[18]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">[19]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">[20]</a></sup> They selected the bar because of their good working relation with the bar's manager, Bill Gaddis;<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-4_21-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-4-21">[21]</a></sup> Atari supplied pinball machines to Gaddis.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-3_5-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-3-5">[5]</a></sup> Bushnell and Alcorn placed the prototype on one of the tables near the other entertainment machines: a jukebox, pinball machines, and <i>Computer Space</i>. The game was well received the first night and its popularity continued to grow over the next one and a half weeks. Bushnell then went on a business trip to Chicago to demonstrate <i>Pong</i> to executives at Bally and <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midway_Games" title="Midway Games">Midway Manufacturing</a>;<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-4_21-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-4-21">[21]</a></sup> he intended to use <i>Pong</i> to fulfill his contract with Bally, rather than the driving game.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-2_3-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-2-3">[3]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-1_4-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-1-4">[4]</a></sup> A few days later, the prototype began exhibiting technical issues and Gaddis contacted Alcorn to fix it. Upon inspecting the machine, Alcorn discovered that the problem was the coin mechanism was overflowing with quarters.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-4_21-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-4-21">[21]</a></sup></p>
  <p>After hearing about the game's success, Bushnell decided there would be more profit for Atari to manufacture the game rather than license it, but the interest of Bally and Midway had already been piqued.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-1_4-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-1-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-4_21-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-4-21">[21]</a></sup> Bushnell decided to inform each of the two groups that the other was uninterested—Bushnell told the Bally executives that the Midway executives did not want it and vice versa—to preserve the relationships for future dealings. Upon hearing Bushnell's comment, the two groups declined his offer.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-4_21-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-4-21">[21]</a></sup> Bushnell had difficulty finding financial backing for <i>Pong</i>; banks viewed it as a variant of pinball, which at the time the general public associated with the Mafia. Atari eventually obtained a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_of_credit" title="Line of credit">line of credit</a> from <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wells_Fargo" title="Wells Fargo">Wells Fargo</a> that it used to expand its facilities to house an assembly line.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-5_22-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-5-22">[22]</a></sup> The company announced <i>Pong</i> on 29 November 1972.<sup id="cite_ref-atari_production99_23-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-atari_production99-23">[23]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">[24]</a></sup> Management sought assembly workers at the local unemployment office, but was unable to keep up with demand. The first arcade cabinets produced were assembled very slowly, about ten machines a day, many of which failed quality testing. Atari eventually streamlined the process and began producing the game in greater quantities.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-5_22-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-5-22">[22]</a></sup> By 1973, they began shipping <i>Pong</i> to other countries with the aid of foreign partners.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-6_25-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-6-25">[25]</a></sup></p>
  <h4>Home version</h4>
  <p>After the success of <i>Pong</i>, Bushnell pushed his employees to create new products.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-1_4-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-1-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Home1_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Home1-26">[26]</a></sup> In 1974, Atari engineer Harold Lee proposed a home version of <i>Pong</i> that would connect to a television: <i>Home Pong</i>. The system began development under the codename <i>Darlene</i>, named after an attractive female employee at Atari. Alcorn worked with Lee to develop the designs and prototype and based them on the same digital technology used in their arcade games. The two worked in shifts to save time and money; Lee worked on the design's logic during the day, while Alcorn <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debugging" title="Debugging">debugged</a> the designs in the evenings. After the designs were approved, fellow Atari engineer Bob Brown assisted Alcorn and Lee in building a prototype. The prototype consisted of a device attached to a wooden pedestal containing over a hundred wires, which would eventually be replaced with a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit" title="Integrated circuit">single chip</a> designed by Alcorn and Lee; the chip had yet to be tested and built before the prototype was constructed. The chip was finished in the latter half of 1974, and was, at the time, the highest-performing chip used in a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_product" class="mw-redirect" title="Consumer product">consumer product</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Home1_26-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Home1-26">[26]</a></sup></p>
  
  <p>While at the show, they met Quinn again, and, a few days later, set up a meeting with him to obtain a sales order. In order to gain approval from the Sporting Goods department, Quinn suggested Atari demonstrate the game to executives in Chicago. Alcorn and Lipkin traveled to the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sears_Tower" class="mw-redirect" title="Sears Tower">Sears Tower</a> and, despite a technical complication in connection with an antenna on top of the building which broadcast on the same channel as the game, obtained approval. Bushnell told Quinn he could produce 75,000&nbsp;units in time for the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_and_holiday_season" title="Christmas and holiday season">Christmas season</a>; however, Quinn requested double the amount. Though Bushnell knew Atari lacked the capacity to manufacture 150,000&nbsp;units, he agreed.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Home1_26-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Home1-26">[26]</a></sup> Atari acquired a new factory through funding obtained by <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venture_capital" title="Venture capital">venture capitalist</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_Valentine" title="Don Valentine">Don Valentine</a>. Supervised by Jimm Tubb, the factory fulfilled the Sears order.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Home2_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Home2-28">[28]</a></sup> The first units manufactured were branded with Sears' "Tele-Games" name. Atari later released a version under its own brand in 1976.<sup id="cite_ref-Gamesutra-Pong_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gamesutra-Pong-29">[29]</a></sup></p>
  
  <h4>Lawsuit from Magnavox</h4>
  
  <p>The success of <i>Pong</i> attracted the attention of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_H._Baer" title="Ralph H. Baer">Ralph Baer</a>, the inventor of the Magnavox Odyssey, and his employer, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanders_Associates" title="Sanders Associates">Sanders Associates</a>. Sanders had an agreement with Magnavox to handle the Odyssey's sublicensing, which included dealing with infringement on its <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exclusive_right" title="Exclusive right">exclusive rights</a>. However, Magnavox had not pursued legal action against Atari and numerous other companies that released <i>Pong</i> clones.<sup id="cite_ref-RB-How_30-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RB-How-30">[30]</a></sup> Sanders continued to apply pressure, and in April 1974 Magnavox filed suit against Atari, Allied Leisure, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midway_Games" title="Midway Games">Bally Midway</a> and <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Coin" title="Chicago Coin">Chicago Dynamics</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Magnavox_Sues_31-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Magnavox_Sues-31">[31]</a></sup> Magnavox argued that Atari had infringed on Baer's patents and his concept of electronic ping-pong based on detailed records Sanders kept of the Odyssey's design process dating back to 1966. Other documents included depositions from witnesses and a signed guest book that demonstrated Bushnell had played the Odyssey's table tennis game prior to releasing <i>Pong</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-RB-How_30-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RB-How-30">[30]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Legal_32-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Legal-32">[32]</a></sup> In response to claims that he saw the Odyssey, Bushnell later stated that, "The fact is that I absolutely did see the Odyssey game and I didn't think it was very clever."<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">[33]</a></sup></p>
  
  <p>After considering his options, Bushnell decided to settle with Magnavox out of court. Bushnell's lawyer felt they could win; however, he estimated legal costs of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_dollar" title="United States dollar">US$</a>1.5 million, which would have exceeded Atari's funds. Magnavox offered Atari an agreement to become a licensee for US$700,000. Other companies producing "<i>Pong</i> clones"—Atari's competitors—would have to pay royalties. In addition, Magnavox would obtain the rights to Atari products developed over the next year.<sup id="cite_ref-RB-How_30-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RB-How-30">[30]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Legal_32-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Legal-32">[32]</a></sup> Magnavox continued to pursue legal action against the other companies, and proceedings began shortly after Atari's settlement in June 1976. The first case took place at the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_District_Court_for_the_Northern_District_of_Illinois" title="United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois">district court</a> in Chicago, with Judge John Grady presiding.<sup id="cite_ref-RB-How_30-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RB-How-30">[30]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Legal_32-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Legal-32">[32]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-CourtYr_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-CourtYr-34">[34]</a></sup> To avoid Magnavox obtaining rights to its products, Atari decided to delay the release of its products for a year, and withheld information from Magnavox's attorneys during visits to Atari facilities.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Legal_32-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Legal-32">[32]</a></sup></p>
  <h3>Impact and Legacy</h3>
  
  <p>The <i>Pong</i> arcade games manufactured by Atari were a great success. The prototype was well received by Andy Capp's Tavern patrons; people came to the bar solely to play the game.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-1_4-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-1-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-4_21-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-4-21">[21]</a></sup> Following its release, <i>Pong</i> consistently earned four times more revenue than other coin-operated machines.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-8_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-8-35">[35]</a></sup> Bushnell estimated that the game earned US$35–40 per day, which he described as nothing he'd ever seen before in the coin-operated entertainment industry at the time.<sup id="cite_ref-GI-215_9-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-GI-215-9">[9]</a></sup> The game's earning power resulted in an increase in the number of orders Atari received. This provided Atari with a steady source of income; the company sold the machines at three times the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cost-of-production_theory_of_value" title="Cost-of-production theory of value">cost of production</a>. By 1973, the company had filled 2,500&nbsp;orders, and, at the end of 1974, sold more than 8,000&nbsp;units.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-8_35-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-8-35">[35]</a></sup> The arcade cabinets have since become collector's items with the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_cabinet#Cocktail_or_table_cabinets" title="Arcade cabinet">cocktail-table version</a> being the rarest.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-5_36-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-5-36">[36]</a></sup> Soon after the game's successful testing at Andy Capp's Tavern, other companies began visiting the bar to inspect it. Similar games appeared on the market three months later, produced by companies like Ramtek and <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutting_Associates" title="Nutting Associates">Nutting Associates</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-9_37-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-9-37">[37]</a></sup> Atari could do little against the competitors as they had not initially filed for patents on the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid_state_(electronics)" class="mw-redirect" title="Solid state (electronics)">solid state</a> technology used in the game. When the company did file for patents, complications delayed the process. As a result, the market consisted primarily of "<i>Pong</i> clones"; author Steven Kent estimated that Atari had produced less than a third of the machines.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-10_38-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-10-38">[38]</a></sup> Bushnell referred to the competitors as "Jackals" because he felt they had an unfair advantage. His solution to competing against them was to produce more innovative games and concepts.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-9_37-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-9-37">[37]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-10_38-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-10-38">[38]</a></sup></p>
  
  <p><i>Home Pong</i> was an instant success following its limited 1975 release through Sears; around 150,000&nbsp;units were sold that holiday season.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-2_39-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-2-39">[39]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Home3_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Home3-40">[40]</a></sup> The game became Sears' most successful product at the time, which earned Atari a Sears Quality Excellence Award.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Home3_40-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Home3-40">[40]</a></sup> Similar to the arcade version, several companies released clones to capitalize on the home console's success, many of which continued to produce new consoles and video games. Magnavox re-released their Odyssey system with simplified hardware and new features, and would later release updated versions. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coleco" title="Coleco">Coleco</a> entered the video game market with their <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telstar_(game_console)" title="Telstar (game console)">Telstar console</a>; it features three <i>Pong</i> variants and was also succeeded by newer models.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-2_39-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-2-39">[39]</a></sup> Nintendo released the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_TV_Game" class="mw-redirect" title="Color TV Game">Color TV Game 6</a> in 1977, which plays six variations of electronic tennis. The next year, it was followed by an updated version, the Color TV Game 15, which features fifteen variations. The systems were Nintendo's entry into the home video game market and the first to produce themselves—they had previously licensed the Magnavox Odyssey.<sup id="cite_ref-GameOver-LightTennis_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-GameOver-LightTennis-41">[41]</a></sup> The dedicated <i>Pong</i> consoles and the numerous clones have since become varying levels of rare; Atari's <i>Pong</i> consoles are common, while APF Electronics' <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/APF_TV_Fun" title="APF TV Fun">TV Fun</a> consoles are moderately rare.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-3_42-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-3-42">[42]</a></sup> Prices among collectors, however, vary with rarity; the Sears Tele-Games versions are often cheaper than those with the Atari brand.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-2_39-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-2-39">[39]</a></sup></p>
  
  <p>Several publications consider <i>Pong</i> the game that launched the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_industry" title="Video game industry">video game industry</a> as a lucrative enterprise.<sup id="cite_ref-AmerHert_8-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AmerHert-8">[8]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Gamesutra-Pong_29-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gamesutra-Pong-29">[29]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-IGN-Pong_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-IGN-Pong-43">[43]</a></sup> Video game author David Ellis sees the game as the cornerstone of the video game industry's success, and called the arcade game "one of the most historically significant" titles.<sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-1_4-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-1-4">[4]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-5_36-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-5-36">[36]</a></sup> Kent attributes the "arcade phenomenon" to <i>Pong</i> and Atari's games that followed it, and considers the release of the home version the successful beginning of home <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_console" title="Video game console">video game consoles</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-9_37-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-9-37">[37]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-Home3_40-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-Home3-40">[40]</a></sup> Bill Loguidice and Matt Barton of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamasutra" title="Gamasutra">Gamasutra</a> referred to the game's release as the start of a new entertainment medium, and commented that its simple, intuitive gameplay made it a success.<sup id="cite_ref-Gamesutra-Pong_29-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gamesutra-Pong-29">[29]</a></sup> In 1996 <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Next_Generation_(magazine)" title="Next Generation (magazine)">Next Generation</a></i> named it one of the "Top 100 Games of All Time", recounting that "<i>Next Generation</i> staff ignor[ed] hundreds of thousands of dollars of 32-bit software to play <i>Pong</i> for hours when the Genesis version was released."<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44">[44]</a></sup> <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entertainment_Weekly" title="Entertainment Weekly">Entertainment Weekly</a></i> named <i>Pong</i> one of the top ten games for the Atari 2600 in 2013.<sup id="cite_ref-ew_45-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ew-45">[45]</a></sup> Many of the companies that produced their own versions of <i>Pong</i> eventually became well-known within the industry. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nintendo" title="Nintendo">Nintendo</a> entered the video game market with clones of <i>Home Pong</i>. The revenue generated from them—each system sold over a million units—helped the company survive a difficult financial time, and spurred them to pursue video games further.<sup id="cite_ref-GameOver-LightTennis_41-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-GameOver-LightTennis-41">[41]</a></sup> After seeing the success of <i>Pong</i>, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konami" title="Konami">Konami</a> decided to break into the arcade game market and released its first title, <i>Maze</i>. Its moderate success drove the company to develop more titles. Pong has also been used in programming classrooms to teach the fundamentals of languages such as Java and C++.<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46">[46]</a></sup></p>
  
  <p>Bushnell felt that <i>Pong</i> was especially significant in its role as a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_lubricant" title="Social lubricant">social lubricant</a>, since it was multiplayer-only and did not require each player to use more than one hand: "It was very common to have a girl with a quarter in hand pull a guy off a bar stool and say, 'I'd like to play <i>Pong</i> and there's nobody to play.' It was a way you could play games, you were sitting shoulder to shoulder, you could talk, you could laugh, you could challenge each other ... As you became better friends, you could put down your beer and hug. You could put your arm around the person. You could play left-handed if you so desired. In fact, there are a lot of people who have come up to me over the years and said, 'I met my wife playing <i>Pong</i>,' and that's kind of a nice thing to have achieved."<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">[47]</a></sup></p>
  
  <h4>Sequels and remakes</h4>
  <p>Bushnell felt the best way to compete against imitators was to create better products, leading Atari to produce sequels in the years followings the original's release: <i>Pong Doubles</i>, <i>Super Pong</i>, <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra_Pong" title="Ultra Pong">Ultra Pong</a></i>, <i>Quadrapong</i>, and <i>Pin-Pong</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-Fever_2-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Fever-2">[2]</a></sup> The sequels feature similar graphics, but include new gameplay elements; for example, <i>Pong Doubles</i> allows four players to compete in pairs, while <i>Quadrapong</i>—also released by <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kee_Games" title="Kee Games">Kee Games</a> as <i>Elimination</i>—has them compete against each other in a four way field.<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48">[48]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49">[49]</a></sup> Bushnell also conceptualized a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free-to-play" title="Free-to-play">free-to-play</a> version of <i>Pong</i> to entertain children in a Doctor's office. He initially titled it <i>Snoopy Pong</i> and fashioned the cabinet after <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snoopy" title="Snoopy">Snoopy</a>'s doghouse with the character on top, but retitled it to <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_Pong" title="Doctor Pong">Puppy Pong</a></i> and altered Snoopy to a generic dog to avoid legal action. Bushnell later used the game in his chain of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chuck_E._Cheese%27s" title="Chuck E. Cheese's">Chuck E. Cheese's</a> restaurants.<sup id="cite_ref-Fever_2-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Fever-2">[2]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50">[50]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51">[51]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52">[52]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-PriceGuide-4_53-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PriceGuide-4-53">[53]</a></sup> In 1976, Atari released <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breakout_(arcade_game)" class="mw-redirect" title="Breakout (arcade game)">Breakout</a></i>, a single-player variation of <i>Pong</i> where the object of the game is to remove bricks from a wall by hitting them with a ball.<sup id="cite_ref-Ultimate-7_54-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ultimate-7-54">[54]</a></sup> Like <i>Pong</i>, <i>Breakout</i> was followed by <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breakout_clone" title="Breakout clone">numerous clones</a> that copied the gameplay, such as <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arkanoid" title="Arkanoid">Arkanoid</a></i>, <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alleyway_(video_game)" title="Alleyway (video game)">Alleyway</a></i>, and <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Break_%27Em_All" title="Break 'Em All">Break 'Em All</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55">[55]</a></sup></p>
  
  <p>Atari remade the game on numerous platforms. In 1977, <i>Pong</i> and several variants of the game were featured in <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_Olympics" title="Video Olympics">Video Olympics</a></i>, one of the original release titles for the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_2600" title="Atari 2600">Atari 2600</a>. <i>Pong</i> has also been included in several Atari compilations on platforms including the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Genesis" title="Sega Genesis">Sega Genesis</a>, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PlayStation_Portable" title="PlayStation Portable">PlayStation Portable</a>, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nintendo_DS" title="Nintendo DS">Nintendo DS</a>, and <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer" title="Personal computer">personal computer</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56">[56]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57">[57]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58">[58]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59">[59]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60">[60]</a></sup> Through an agreement with Atari, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bally_Technologies" title="Bally Technologies">Bally Gaming and Systems</a> developed a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slot_machine" title="Slot machine">slot machine</a> version of the game.<sup id="cite_ref-PongSlots_61-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PongSlots-61">[61]</a></sup> The Atari published <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TD_Overdrive" class="mw-redirect" title="TD Overdrive">TD Overdrive</a></i> includes <i>Pong</i> as an extra game which is played during the loading screen.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62">[62]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63">[63]</a></sup> In 1999, the game was <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pong:_The_Next_Level" title="Pong: The Next Level">remade</a> for home computers and the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PlayStation" title="PlayStation">PlayStation</a> with <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_computer_graphics" title="3D computer graphics">3D graphics</a> and <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power-up" title="Power-up">power-ups</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64">[64]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65">[65]</a></sup> In 2012, Atari celebrated the 40th anniversary of Pong by releasing Pong World.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66">[66]</a></sup></p>
  
  
  <h4>In popular culture</h4>
  
  <p>The game is featured in episodes of television series: <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/That_%2770s_Show" title="That '70s Show">That '70s Show</a></i>,<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67">[67]</a></sup> <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_of_the_Hill" title="King of the Hill">King of the Hill</a></i>,<sup id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68">[68]</a></sup> and <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturday_Night_Live" title="Saturday Night Live">Saturday Night Live</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69">[69]</a></sup> In 2006, an <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Express" title="American Express">American Express</a> commercial featured <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andy_Roddick" title="Andy Roddick">Andy Roddick</a> in a tennis match against the white, in-game paddle.<sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70">[70]</a></sup> Other video games have also referenced and parodied <i>Pong</i>; for example <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuromancer_(video_game)" title="Neuromancer (video game)"><i>Neuromancer</i></a> for the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_64" title="Commodore 64">Commodore 64</a> and <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banjo-Kazooie:_Nuts_and_Bolts" class="mw-redirect" title="Banjo-Kazooie: Nuts and Bolts">Banjo-Kazooie: Nuts and Bolts</a></i> for the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xbox_360" title="Xbox 360">Xbox 360</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71">[71]</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72">[72]</a></sup> The concert event <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_Games_Live" title="Video Games Live">Video Games Live</a> has performed audio from <i>Pong</i> as part of a special retro "Classic Arcade Medley".<sup id="cite_ref-73" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-73">[73]</a></sup> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Francis" title="Black Francis">Frank Black</a>'s song "Whatever Happened to Pong?" on the album <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teenager_of_the_Year" title="Teenager of the Year">Teenager of the Year</a></i> references the game's elements.<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">[74]</a></sup></p>
  
  <p>Dutch design studio Buro Vormkrijgers created a <i>Pong</i>-themed clock as a fun project within their offices. After the studio decided to manufacture it for retail, Atari took legal action in February 2006. The two companies eventually reached an agreement in which Buro Vormkrijgers could produce a limited number under license.<sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75">[75]</a></sup> In 1999, French artist <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Huyghe" title="Pierre Huyghe">Pierre Huyghe</a> created an installation entitled "Atari Light", in which two people use handheld gaming devices to play <i>Pong</i> on an illuminated ceiling. The work was shown at the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice_Biennale" title="Venice Biennale">Venice Biennale</a> in 2001, and the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museo_de_Arte_Contempor%C3%A1neo_de_Castilla_y_Le%C3%B3n" title="Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Castilla y León">Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Castilla y León</a> in 2007.<sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76">[76]</a></sup> The game was included in the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London" title="London">London</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbican_Art_Gallery" class="mw-redirect" title="Barbican Art Gallery">Barbican Art Gallery</a>'s 2002 <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_On_(exhibition)" title="Game On (exhibition)">Game On exhibition</a> meant to showcase the various aspects of video game history, development, and culture.<sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77">[77]</a></sup></p>
  
</div>

<div class="backdrop" id="backdrop">
  <div class="paddle paddle--left" id="paddle-left"></div>
  <div class="paddle paddle--right" id="paddle-right"></div>
  <div class="ball" id="ball"></div>
</div>

</div>

              
            
!

CSS

              
                @import url('https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Open+Sans|Press+Start+2P');

body {
  font-size: 16px;
  background-color: #00120b;
  color: #fff;
  line-height: 1.5;
  font-family: "Open Sans", Helvetica, sans-serif;
}

a {
  color: #31e981;
  text-decoration: none;
}

* {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
  font-family: "Press Start 2P";
  font-weight: normal;
  margin-top: 2em;
}



.container {
  margin: 0 auto;
  max-width: 700px;
  padding: 0 2em;
  position: relative;
}

.main {
  position: relative;
  z-index: 1;
  background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2);
  padding: 2em;
}
.backdrop {
  position: fixed;
  left: 1em;
  right: 1em;
  top: 1em;
  bottom: 1em;
  z-index: 0;
}
.paddle {
  position: absolute;
  width: 1em;
  height: 20vh;
  background-color: #35605a;
  &--left {
    left: 0;
  }
  &--right {
    right: 0;
  }
}

.ball {
  position: absolute;
  height: 1.5em;
  width: 1.5em;
  background-color: #31e981;
}

sup {
  font-family: 'Press Start 2P';
  text-decoration: none;
  vertical-align: middle;
  font-size: 10px;
}


              
            
!

JS

              
                const ball = document.getElementById('ball');
const paddleLeft = document.getElementById('paddle-left');
const paddleRight = document.getElementById('paddle-right');
let width = document.getElementById('backdrop').clientWidth - 40;

const horizontal = new TimelineMax({
  repeat: -1,
  yoyo: true
});

const timeToCross = 2;

horizontal.to(ball, timeToCross, {
 x: width,
 ease: Power0.easeNone
});
horizontal.to(ball, timeToCross, {
  x: 16,
  ease: Power0.easeNone
});

const vertical = new TimelineMax(
  {
    repeat: -1
  }
);

function verticalShift(amount, side) {
  vertical.to(ball, timeToCross, {
    y: amount,
    ease: Power0.easeNone
  });
  if (side == 'left') {
    vertical.to(paddleLeft, timeToCross, {
      y: amount - 20
    }, '-=' + timeToCross);    
  } else {
    vertical.to(paddleRight, timeToCross, {
      y: amount - 20
    }, '-=' + timeToCross);    
  }
}

verticalShift(100, 'right');
verticalShift(400, 'left');
verticalShift(30,  'right');
verticalShift(40,  'left');
verticalShift(350, 'right');
verticalShift(10,  'left');
verticalShift(10, 'right');
verticalShift(10, 'left');

              
            
!
999px

Console