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                <script src=""></script>

  <main id="main">
    <header id="top">A little over 500 years ago, the Reformation begins... </header>
    <h1 id="title">Martin Luther in the Reformation</h1>
    <div id="img-div">
      <img id="image" src="" alt="Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms">
      <figcaption id="img-caption"><b>Luther defends the authority of Scripture</b><br><small><i>"Luther at the
            Diet of
            Worms" by
            Anton von Werner 1877</i></small></figcaption>
        <li class="li"><a href="#top">Top</a></li>
        <li class="li"><a href="#intro">Intro</a></li>
        <li class="li"><a href="#timeline">Timeline</a></li>
        <li class="li"><a href="#summary">Summary</a></li>

    <section id="tribute-info">
      <h2 id="intro"><u>Introduction</u></h2>
      <p>Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer,
        priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.</p>

      <p>Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507. He came to reject several teachings and practices of the
        Roman Catholic Church; in particular, he disputed the view on indulgences. Luther proposed an academic
        discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517. His refusal to
        renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at
        the Diet (i.e. council) of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as
        an outlaw by
        the Holy Roman Emperor.</p>

      <p>Luther taught that salvation and, consequently, eternal life are not earned by good deeds but are
        received only as the free gift of God's grace through the believer's faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer
        from sin. His theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the
        only source of divinely revealed knowledge, and opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized
        Christians to be a holy priesthood.</p>

      <p>His translation of the Bible into the German vernacular (instead of Latin) made it more accessible to the
        laity, an event that had a tremendous impact on both the church and German culture. It fostered the
        development of a standard version of the German language, added several principles to the art of
        translation, and influenced the writing of an English translation, the Tyndale Bible. His hymns
        influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a
        former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry.</p>

      <p>Luther died in 1546 with Pope Leo X's excommunication still effective.<a href="#footer"><sup>[1]</sup></a>

      <h2 id="timeline"><u>Timeline</u></h2>
      <ul id="list">
          <b>1483</b> - November 10: A son is born to Hans and Margerethe Luther (also called Luder) in
          Lutherstadt Eisleben; he is baptized "Martin" on November 11 in the Church of St Peter and St Paul.

          <b>1484</b> - The family moves to the village of Mansfeld-Lutherstadt.

          <b>1498</b> - Martin Luther starts school in Eisenach.

          - Luther goes to study law at the University of Erfurt.
          - Caught in a terrible storm in Stotternheim (near Erfurt), Luther vows to become a monk if St. Anne
          saves him. Surviving the storm, he gives up his career as a lawyer and joins the Augustinian order
          at the monastery in Erfurt.
          - Luther celebrates his first mass on May 2.
          - Luther arrives in Lutherstadt Wittenberg to lecture and study at the university.
          - Luther walks to Rome, a distance of around 1,000 miles.
          - Luther preaches against the selling of indulgences. On October 31, he nails the 95 Theses to the
          door of Lutherstadt Wittenberg's Castle Church. Translated from Latin into German, this printed
          declaration spreads like wildfire. Martin also changes his name from Luder to Luther, which may have
          been a Greek play on words: Martinus Eleutherios, or "Martin the Free One".
          - Luther is charged with heresy in Rome. He defends himself in Augsburg with arguments based on the
          Bible rather than church doctrine. He has to flee, returning to Lutherstadt Wittenberg under the
          protection of Frederick the Wise (the Elector Frederick III).
          - Luther burns the Papal Bull in Lutherstadt Wittenberg.
          - Luther is excommunicated and summoned to appear before the Diet of Worms (the Council of Worms, a
          city in western Germany). His words "I neither can nor will recant" challenged authority in a way
          that would change the course of history. On his journey back to Lutherstadt Wittenberg, he is
          'kidnapped' and taken to Wartburg Castle near Eisenach. In reality, he is once again under the
          protection of Frederick the Wise. Safe in the fortress, Luther grows a beard and goes by the name of
          "Squire George" ("Junker Jörg"). In just 10 weeks, he translates the New Testament from Greek into
          - Luther returns to Lutherstadt Wittenberg and sets off a series of theological and social reforms,
          such as education for all. He encourages musicians and poets to write music and hymns for church
          - Luther encourages monks and nuns to leave their abbeys. One nun who followed this call was none
          other than Katharina von Bora, who fled to Lutherstadt Wittenberg where she would come to meet
          - Luther marries Katharina von Bora. On December 25, Luther holds the German Mass, the very first
          Protestant service.
          - Luther publishes The Large Catechism, an easy-to-understand explanation of Christian theology.
          - The Augsburg Confession is written by Luther's close associate and friend, Philipp Melanchthon. He
          presents it to the Diet of Augsburg, but his arguments are rejected. However, this document was –
          and still is – the cornerstone of Lutheran faith.
          - The "Klug's Songbook" ("Klug'sche Gesangbuch") is published, including songs like "A Mighty
          is our God", Luther's best-known and best-loved hymn.
          - Schmalkalden hosts a grand meeting of the Schmalkaldic League of rulers and theologians; Luther
          presents his Articles of Faith, a summary of Lutheran doctrine.
          - Luther dies in Lutherstadt Eisleben. His coffin is carried to Lutherstadt Wittenberg, where he is
          buried at the Castle Church. As recorded on his tombstone, he lived for "63 years, 2 months, and 10
          days."<a href="#footer"><sup>[2]</sup></a>

      <h2 id="summary"><u>Summary</u></h2>
      <p>Though Luther was an imperfect human (as we all are), and had several major flaws (including
        anti-Semitism, most notable later in his life), yet for all this he had a major positive impact on the
        social, theological and political situation of his time. The effects of this are still being felt today.
        I'll leave you with a few of his quotes-</p>
        <p>"I more fear what is within me than what comes from without."</p>
        <p>"God writes the Gospel not in the Bible alone, but also on trees, and in the flowers and clouds and
        <p>"Forgiveness is God's command."</p>
      <h3>For a short overview of the Reformation, check out this article on <a id="tribure-link" href="" target="_blank"></a>. For a
        more detailed view of Luther's life and his formative part in the Reformation visit <a id="tribute-link" href="" target="_blank"></a>.</h3>
    <footer id="footer">Author: Doug Wallace, FCC/Github/CodePen: @broadsword-mo.
      Image of "<a href="">Luther at the
        Diet of Worms</a>" painting coutesy of, "Introduction" text courtesty of and
      "Timeline" text courtesy of <a href=""></a>.
      <a href=""><sup>[1]</sup></a><br>
      <a href=""><sup>[2]</sup></a>



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