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<h1>Set focus context for accessibility</h1>

<p>When opening a dialog or off-canvas menu - the rest of the page should be <i>disabled</i> in behaviour to match it's visual appearance.</p>

<p>There could be lots of <a href="#">Focusable elements</a>, some event due to <a href="#">tabindex</a> within a page which should be ignored in the dom and should not be focusable when dialog or fullscreen menu is active. </a></p>

<div class="launch-modal-wrapper">
  <button data-launch-modal>Launch a modal</button>

  <div class="dialog__inner">
    <p>When active this dialog should be our focus content - focusable elements outside of this should be <a href="#">inert</a>.</p>
  <p>Tabbing items within should cycle through these and exit to the browser chrome after the last item.</p>
    <p>If a browser had full support for the <code>inert</code> attribute - we could just apply this to the parent element and the parent and it's contents would be considered inert without the need to remove <a href="#">href's</a> etc as we need to now.</p>
    <p><button data-exit-dialog>Close dialog</button></p>
<div class="overlay"></div>

  Email address
  <input type="email" /></label>
  <button type="submit">Sign up to mailing list</button>

<div class="instructions">
  <p>Use your keyboard to tab through elements on the page - select the launch a modal button, observe that focus context is set. Focusable elements outside of the dialog context are disabled and the outermost elements of the dom are marked inert. Tabbing past the last element in the dialog will exit from the page.</p>
<p>This pen was created as an example for the article <a href="…menus-and-modals">Focus on accessibility – accessible menus and modals on</a></p>


                body {
  font-family: sans-serif;
  color: #333;
  line-height: 1.3;
.overlay {
  position: absolute;
  top: 0; bottom: 0; left: 0; width:100%;
  z-index: 1;
  background-color: rgba(0,0,0,0.5);
  display: none;
dialog[open] + .overlay {
  display: block;
dialog {
  position: absolute;
  top: 50%;
  left: 50%;
  transform: translateX(-50%) translateY(-50%);
  max-width: calc(100% - 40px);
.launch-modal-wrapper {
  border: 2px dashed #ccc;
  padding: 20px;
  border-radius: 8px;
  display: flex;
  justify-content: center;

.instructions {
  font-size: 80%;
  padding: 10px;
  background-color: #eee;
  margin-top: 20px;


                const launchDialog = document.querySelector('[data-launch-modal]'),
      dialog = document.querySelector('dialog'),
      exitDialog = document.querySelector('[data-exit-dialog]');

launchDialog.addEventListener('click', (e)=>{
  dialog.setAttribute('open', ' ');
  setFocusContext(dialog); // set focus context to element                              

exitDialog.addEventListener('click', (e)=>{
  setFocusContext(false); // pass empty or false to reset

const setFocusContext = (focusContext) => {
    // focusable elements within document
		var focusableElements = document.querySelectorAll(`
    var parentElements = document.querySelectorAll(`
      body > div, 
			body > header,
			body > aside, 
			body > section, 
			body > main,
			body > footer,
      body > form,
      body > article
    const formElements = ['BUTTON','INPUT','SELECT','TEXTAREA'];
    if ( focusContext ) {

        if ( !focusContext.contains(el) ) {  // disable focusable elements outside our context
          el.setAttribute('data-focus-context', false);
          el.setAttribute('aria-hidden', true);
          if ( el.hasAttribute('tabindex') ) {
            el.setAttribute('data-context-inert-tabindex', el.getAttribute('tabindex'));
          if ( el.hasAttribute('href') ) {
            el.setAttribute('data-context-inert-href', el.getAttribute('href'));
          if ( formElements.indexOf(el.tagName) != -1 ) {
            if ( el.hasAttribute('disabled') ) {
              el.setAttribute('data-context-inert-disabled', el.getAttribute('disabled') );
            el.setAttribute('disabled', true);


      // set parents in dom inert
      parentElements.forEach( (parentEl)=> {
        if ( !parentEl.contains(focusContext) ) {
          parentEl.setAttribute('inert', ' ');
          parentEl.setAttribute('aria-hidden', true);

    } else {
      var inertElements = document.querySelectorAll('[data-focus-context=false]');
      // restore 
      inertElements.forEach( (el) => {
        if ( el.hasAttribute('data-context-inert-tabindex') ) {
          el.setAttribute('tabindex', el.getAttribute('data-context-inert-tabindex'));
        if ( el.hasAttribute('data-context-inert-href') ) {
          el.setAttribute('href', el.getAttribute('data-context-inert-href'));
        if ( formElements.indexOf(el.tagName) != -1 ) {
          el.removeAttribute('disabled', true);
          if ( el.hasAttribute('data-context-inert-disabled') ) {
            el.setAttribute('disabled', el.getAttribute('data-context-inert-disabled') );
      // restore parents in dom 
      parentElements.forEach( (parentEl)=>{