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    <h1>A More Accessible Required Field</h1>
    <form class="flow">
      <fieldset class="example example__bad">
        <legend>Visible indication only</legend>
        <!-- A common convention is to use an asterix (*) next to a label to indicate required fields. But this doesn't programatically indicate the field is required and depending on screen reader settings, it may not announce the asterix at all -->
        <label for="name1">Name *</label>
        <input type="text" id="name1">
        <small>All fields marked with * are required</small>
      <fieldset class="example example__bad">
        <legend>Relying on color only</legend>
        <!-- Sometimes color or bolder borders are used to indicate whether a field is required. This technique doesn't programtically indicate that a field is required, and the visual cues can also be missed by users with low contrast or color visibility issues. -->
        <label for="name2" class="required">Name</label>
        <input type="text" id="name2">
      <fieldset class="example example__bad">
        <legend>Programtically setting required fields</legend>
        <!-- Using the HTML5 required attribute will announce the field as required to screen readers, but doesn't provide any visual feedback about the required state. To stop screen readers from announcing required fields as invalid by default, set the aria-invalid="false" attribute. -->
        <label for="name3">Name</label>
        <input type="text" id="name3" required aria-invalid="false">
      <fieldset class="example example__good">
        <legend>Putting it All Together</legend>
        <!-- Using the HTML5 required attribute in addition to visual cues ensure all users know if a field is required or not. -->
        <label for="name4">Name *</label>
        <input type="text" id="name4" required aria-invalid="false">
        <small>All fields marked with * are required</small>


                :root {
  --space: 1.5rem;

body {
  background-color: #bebebe;
  display: grid;
  place-items: center;
  align-items: center;
  padding: var(--space);

main {
  background-color: #fefefe;
  padding: calc(var(--space) * 2);
  max-width: 70ch;
  border-radius: 0.25rem;

.flow > * + * {
  margin-top: var(--space);

article {
  margin-top: 3rem;

input {
  border-radius: 0.25rem;
  padding: 0.5rem;

.example {
  outline: 1px solid #efefef;
  padding: 1rem;
  border-left: 4px solid;

.example__bad {
  border-left-color: red;

.example__good {
  border-left-color: green;

.example__goodinput[required] input[required] {
  border: 2px solid #222;

label + input[type="text"] {
  display: block;

/* Utility Classes */

.required {
  color: red;

.required + input {
  background-color: #efefef;

.d-block {
  display: block;

.txt-small {
  font-size: 90%;

.txt-light {
  color: #444444;