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HTML

              
                <header class="experimental-code">
  <span>Experimental code: please refer to the <a href="https://w3c.github.io/aria-practices/#tooltip">APG tooltip design pattern</a>.</span>
</header>
<main>
  <h1>Tooltips</h1>
  <p>Two different implementations of the tooltip design pattern.</p>
  <p class="warning">Warning: this <a href="https://github.com/ZoeBijl/apg-tooltip">project is moved to GitHub</a>.</p>
  <section>
      <h2 id="todos">Todo:</h2>
      <ul>
          <li>
              <input type="checkbox" id="td1" checked>
              <label for="td1"> Comply with <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG21/#content-on-hover-or-focus">WCAG 2.1 SC 1.4.13 Content on Hover or Focus</a></label>
          </li>
          <li>
              <input type="checkbox" id="td2" checked>
              <label for="td2"> Do some bounding box calculations</label>
          </li>
          <li>
              <input type="checkbox" id="td3" checked>
              <label for="td3"> Clean up <code>addEventListener</code> code</label>
          </li>
          <li>
              <input type="checkbox" id="td4" checked>
              <label for="td4"> Rerun tests</label>
          </li>
      </ul>
  </section>
  <section>
      <h2 id="tooltip-additional">Tooltip with additional information</h2>
      <p>This implementation follows the <a href="https://w3c.github.io/aria-practices/#tooltip">guidance of the ARIA Authoring Practices Guide</a>.</p>
      <div class="tooltip-container">
          <button type="button" aria-describedby="description">
              Settings
          </button>
          <p id="description" role="tooltip" class="hidden">View and manage settings</p>
      </div>
      <h3>Source</h3>
      <pre><code>&lt;div class="tooltip-container"&gt;
&lt;button type="button" aria-describedby="description"&gt;
  Settings
&lt;/button&gt;
&lt;p id="description" role="tooltip" class="hidden"&gt;View and manage settings&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
</code></pre>
  </section>
  <section>
      <h2 id="tooltip-main-label">Tooltip as main label</h2>
      <p>In this version the label for the button is privded via a <code>aria-labelledby</code> attribute that points to tooltip text.</p>
      <div class="tooltip-container" data-tooltip-position="top">
          <button type="button" aria-labelledby="tooltip">
              <span aria-hidden="true">💛</span>
          </button>
          <p id="tooltip" role="tooltip" class="hidden">Like</p>
      </div>
      <section class="warning">
          <p>Warning: this pattern isn’t a valid/supported usecase in <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-1.2/#tooltip">ARIA 1.2</a>.</p>
          <h3>Related GitHub issues</h3>
          <ul>
              <li><a href="https://github.com/w3c/aria-practices/issues/1034">Tooltip pattern should allow for aria-labelledby</a></li>
              <li><a href="https://github.com/w3c/aria/issues/979">Clarify the use of role=tooltip</a></li>
          </ul>
      </section>
      <p class="note">Note: the default position of this tooltip is set to be above the control. This is changed via the <code>data-tooltip-position</code> attribute on the <code>&lt;div&gt;</code> with the <code>tooltip-container</code> class.</p>
      <h3>Source</h3>
      <pre><code>&lt;div class="tooltip-container" data-tooltip-position="top"&gt;
&lt;button type="button" aria-labelledby="tooltip" data-tooltip-position="top"&gt;
  &lt;span aria-hidden="true"&gt;💛&lt;/span&gt;
&lt;/button&gt;
&lt;p id="tooltip" role="tooltip" class="hidden"&gt;Like&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
</code></pre>
  </section>
  <section>
      <h2 id="keyboard-support">Keyboard support</h2>
      <p>Pressing <kbd>Escape</kbd> will close the tooltip.</p>
  </section>
  <section>
      <h2 id="touch-support">Touch support</h2>
      <p>Tapping anywhere outside the tooltip or button will close the tooltip.</p>
  </section>
  <section>
      <h2 id="development-notes">Development notes</h2>
      <ul>
          <li>Played around with <code>pointerover</code> and related pointer events; cool but a bit overkill here.</li>
      </ul>
  </section>
  <section>
      <h2 id="test-results">Test results</h2>
      <h3 id="tests-2022">Sometime in 2022</h3>
      <p>Tested to work with these browsers:</p>
      <ul>
          <li>Chrome 98.0.4758.80 on macOS 11.6.2 and Windows 10</li>
          <li>Firefox 96.0.3 on macOS 11.6.2 and Windows 10</li>
          <li>Safari 15.2 on macOS 11.6.2</li>
          <li>Chrome 97 on Android 9</li>
          <li>Firefox 96 on Android 9</li>
          <li>Safari on iOS 15.2.1</li>
      </ul>
      <p>Tested to work with these browser/assistive technology combinations:</p>
      <ul>
          <li>VoiceOver and Chrome 98.0.4758.80 on macOS 11.6.2</li>
          <li>VoiceOver and Safari 15.2 on macOS 11.6.2</li>
          <li>VoiceOver and Safari on iOS 15.2.1</li>
          <li>JAWS 2022.2112.24 and Chrome  98.0.4758.82 on Windows 10</li>
          <li>JAWS 2022.2112.24 and Firefox 96.0.3 on Windows 10<a href="#fn5">5</a></li>
          <li>NVIDA 2021.3.1 and Chrome 98.0.4758.82 on Windows 10</li>
          <li>NVIDA 2021.3.1 and Firefox 96.0.3 on Windows 10</li>
      </ul>
      <h4>Notes</h4>
      <ol class="footnotes" start="5">
          <li id="fn5">The description is read twice</li>
      </ol>
      <h3 id="tests-2019">Sometime in 2019</h3>
      <p>Note: these results are from 2019. While there were no major failures in these results; it’ll be well worth running these again!</p>
      <p>The ARIA bits of this work in Safari with VoiceOver on iOS. But the tooltips themselves aren’t visible before you trigger the action. This is a limitation of the design pattern.</p>
      <p>Tested to work in these browsers:</p>
      <ul>
          <li>Chrome 71.0.3578.98 on macOS 10.14.3 / Windows 10</li>
          <li>Safari 12.0.3 on macOS 10.14.3</li>
          <li>Firefox 65 on macOS 10.14.3 / Windows 10</li>
          <li>Edge 41.16299.820.0 / EdgeHTML 16.16299 on Windows 10</li>
      </ul>
      <p>Tested to work with these browser/assistive technology combinations:</p>
      <ul>
          <li>Safari 12.0.3 and VoiceOver on macOS 10.14.3</li>
          <li>Chrome 71.0.3578.98 and VoiceOver on macOS 10.14.3</li>
          <li>Chrome 71.0.3578.98 and NVDA 2018.4 on Windows 10 <a href="#fn3">3</a></li>
          <li>Chrome 71.0.3578.98 and JAWS 2019 on Windows 10  <a href="#fn3">3</a></li>
          <li>Edge 41.16299.820.0 / EdgeHTML 16.16299 and Narrator on Windows 10  <a href="#fn1">1</a></li>
          <li>Edge 41.16299.820.0 / EdgeHTML 16.16299 and NVDA 2018.4 on Windows 10  <a href="#fn1">1</a></li>
          <li>Edge 41.16299.820.0 / EdgeHTML 16.16299 and JAWS 2019 on Windows 10  <a href="#fn1">1</a>  <a href="#fn4">4</a></li>
          <li>Firefox 65 and NVDA 2018.4 on Windows 10  <a href="#fn2">2</a></li>
          <li>Firefox 65 and JAWS 2019 on Windows 10  <a href="#fn3">3</a></li>
      </ul>
      <h4>Notes</h4>
      <ol class="footnotes">
          <li id="fn1">The settings button is announced as “gear, button”. This is most likely because Edge ignores the <code>aria-label</code> on the <code>span</code> with <code>role=img</code>. Perhaps Edge doesn’t support the <code>img</code>-role.</li>
          <li id="fn2">NVDA announces the settings button as “Settings, graphic, button, view and manage settings”. There’s no delay between the announcement of the button name and its description.</li>
          <li id="fn3">There’s no delay between the announcement of the button name and its description.</li>
          <li id="fn4">The description isn’t announced.</li>
      </ol>
  </section>
  <section>
      <h2 id="resources">Resources</h2>
      <ul>
          <li><a href="https://sarahmhigley.com/writing/tooltips-in-wcag-21/">Tooltips in the time of WCAG 2.1</a> by Sarah Higley</li>
          <li><a href="https://inclusive-components.design/tooltips-toggletips/">Tooltips and Toggletips</a> by Heydon Works</li>
          <li><a href="https://w3c.github.io/aria-practices/#tooltip">ARIA APG: Tooltip design pattern</a></li>
          <li><a href="https://github.com/w3c/aria-practices/issues/128">GitHub APG: Draft tooltip design pattern</a></li>
          <li><a href="https://github.com/w3c/aria-practices/issues/127">GitHub APG: Draft tooltip code example</a></li>
          <li><a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/Pointer_events">MDN: Pointer events</a></li>
      </ul>
  </section>
  <section>
      <h2 id="special-thanks">Special thanks</h2>
      <ul>
          <li><a href="https://github.com/thezacharytaylor">Zachary Taylor</a> for the bounding box calculations</li>
      </ul>
  </section>
  <footer>
      <p>Words by Zoë</p>
  </footer>
</main>
              
            
!

CSS

              
                :root {
    --tooltip-thingy-height: .5em;
}

[aria-hidden="true"] {
    pointer-events: none;
}

.tooltip-container {
    position: relative;
    display: inline-block;
}

.tooltip-container::before {
    position: absolute;
    top: 100%;
    left: 50%;
    transform: translateX(-50%);
    border: var(--tooltip-thingy-height) solid transparent;
    border-bottom-color: black;
}

// This allows users to move their cursor from the button to the tooltip
.tooltip-container::after {
    position: absolute;
    right: -20%;
    top: 100%;
    left: -20%;
    display: block;
    height: calc(var(--tooltip-thingy-height) * 2);
}

.tooltip-container.tooltip-visible::before,
.tooltip-container.tooltip-visible::after {
    content: '';
}

.tooltip-container.top::before,
.tooltip-container.top::after,
.tooltip-container.top [role=tooltip] {
    top: unset;
    bottom: 100%;
}

.tooltip-container.top::before {
    border-top-color: black;
    border-bottom-color: transparent;
}

.hidden {
    display: none;
}

[role=tooltip] {
    position: absolute;
    top: 100%;
    left: 50%;
    transform: translateX(-50%);
    padding: .5em 1em;
    border-radius: .25em;
    color: white;
    background: black;
    min-width: max-content;
    max-width: 10em;
    box-shadow: 0 1px 2px hsl(0, 0%, 0%);
}

button {
  display: inline-block;
  position: relative;
  padding: .4em .7em;
  border: 1px solid hsl(213, 71%, 49%);
  border-radius: 5px;
  box-shadow: 0 1px 2px hsl(216, 27%, 55%);
  color: #fff;
    font-size: inherit;
  text-shadow: 0 -1px 1px hsl(216, 27%, 25%);
  background-color: hsl(216, 82%, 51%);
  background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom, hsl(216, 82%, 53%), hsl(216, 82%, 47%));
}

button:hover {
  border-color: hsl(213, 71%, 29%);
  background-color: hsl(216, 82%, 31%);
  background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom, hsl(216, 82%, 33%), hsl(216, 82%, 27%));
  cursor: default;
}

button:focus {
  outline: 2px transparent;
}

button:focus::before {
  position: absolute;
  z-index: -1;
  /* button border width - outline width - offset */
  top: calc(-1px - 3px - 3px);
  right: calc(-1px - 3px - 3px);
  bottom: calc(-1px - 3px - 3px);
  left: calc(-1px - 3px - 3px);
  border: 3px solid hsl(213, 71%, 49%);
  /* button border radius + outline width + offset */
  border-radius: calc(5px + 3px + 3px);
  content: '';
}

button:active {
  border-color: hsl(213, 71%, 49%);
  background-color: hsl(216, 82%, 31%);
  background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom, hsl(216, 82%, 53%), hsl(216, 82%, 47%));
  box-shadow: inset 0 3px 5px 1px hsl(216, 82%, 30%);
}

              
            
!

JS

              
                class Tooltip {
  constructor(element) {
    this.container = element
    this.button = element.querySelector('button')
    this.tooltip = element.querySelector('[role=tooltip]')
    this.tooltipPosition = this.getTooltipPosition()
    this.globalEscapeBound = this.globalEscape.bind(this)
    this.globalPointerDownBound = this.globalPointerDown.bind(this)
    this.initialiseClassList()
    this.bindEvents()
  }

  // Basic actions
  openTooltip() {
    this.showTooltip()
    this.checkBoundingBox()
    this.attachGlobalListener()
  }

  closeTooltip() {
    this.hideTooltip()
    this.resetBoundingBox()
    this.removeGlobalListener()
  }

  // Binding event listteners
  bindEvents() {
    // Events that trigger openTooltip()
    // Open on mouse hover
    this.container.addEventListener('mouseenter', this.openTooltip.bind(this))
    // Open when a touch is detected
    this.container.addEventListener('touchstart', this.openTooltip.bind(this))
    // Open when the button gets focus
    this.button.addEventListener('focus', this.openTooltip.bind(this))

    // Events that trigger closeTooltip()
    // Close when the mouse cursor leaves the button or tooltip area
    this.container.addEventListener('mouseleave', this.closeTooltip.bind(this))
    // Close when the buttons loses focus
    this.button.addEventListener('blur', this.closeTooltip.bind(this))
  }

  attachGlobalListener() {
    document.addEventListener('keydown', this.globalEscapeBound)
    document.addEventListener('pointerdown', this.globalPointerDownBound)
  }

  removeGlobalListener() {
    document.removeEventListener('keydown', this.globalEscapeBound)
    document.removeEventListener('pointerdown', this.globalPointerDownBound)
  }

  globalEscape(event) {
    if (event.key === 'Escape' || event.key === 'Esc') {
      this.close()
    }
  }

  // Close the tooltip if the target is anything other than the components within the tooltip widget
  globalPointerDown(event) {
    switch (event.target) {
      case this.container:
      case this.button:
      case this.tooltip:
        event.preventDefault()
        break
      default:
        this.close()
        this.button.blur()
    }
  }

  // Show or hide the tooltip
  showTooltip() {
    this.container.classList.add('tooltip-visible')
    this.tooltip.classList.remove('hidden')
  }

  hideTooltip() {
    this.container.classList.remove('tooltip-visible')
    this.tooltip.classList.add('hidden')
  }

  // Get the desired default position for the tooltip (defaults to 'bottom')
  getTooltipPosition() {
    let attribute = this.container.getAttribute('data-tooltip-position')
    let setting = 'bottom'

    if (attribute === 'top') {
      setting = attribute
    }

    return setting;
  }

  // Set the default classes for tooltips based on this.getTooltipPosition()
  initialiseClassList() {
    switch (this.tooltipPosition) {
      case 'top':
        this.container.classList.add('top')
        break

      default:
        this.container.classList.remove('top')
        break
    }
  }

  // Calculate if the tooltip is within the viewport
  checkBoundingBox() {
    let bounds = this.tooltip.getBoundingClientRect()

    this.checkHorizontalBounding(bounds)
    this.checkVerticalBounding(bounds)
  }

  checkHorizontalBounding(bounds) {
    let windowWidth = window.innerWidth

    // If the tooltip overlaps on both sides, throw an error
    if (bounds.right > windowWidth && bounds.left < 0) {
      throw new Error('Tooltip width too wide for the window')
    }

    // Check if the right side of the tooltip is beyond the right side of the viewport
    if (bounds.right > windowWidth) {
      this.moveTooltipLeft(bounds, windowWidth)
    }

    // Check if the left side of the tooltip is beyond the left side of the viewport
    if (bounds.left < 0 ) {
      this.moveTooltipRight(bounds)
    }
  }

  checkVerticalBounding(bounds) {
    let windowHeight = window.innerHeight

    // If the tooltip overlaps on both sides, throw an error
    if (bounds.bottom > windowHeight && bounds.top < 0) {
      throw new Error('Tooltip height too high for the window')
    }

    // Check if the bottom of the tooltip is below the bottom of the viewport
    if (bounds.bottom > windowHeight) {
      this.moveTooltipUp()
    }

    // Check if the top of the tooltip is above the top of the viewport
    if (bounds.top < 0) {
      this.moveTooltipDown()
    }
  }

  // Move the tooltip so it fits within the viewport
  moveTooltipUp() {
    this.container.classList.add('top')
  }

  moveTooltipRight(bounds) {
    let numToMove = Math.floor(bounds.width / 2)
    this.tooltip.style.left = `${numToMove}px`
  }

  moveTooltipDown() {
    this.container.classList.remove('top')
  }

  moveTooltipLeft(bounds, windowWidth) {
    let translateAmount = (windowWidth - Math.round(bounds.right) - (Math.round(bounds.width) / 1.6))
    this.tooltip.style.transform = `translateX(${translateAmount}px)`
  }

  // Reset the changes made by the bounding box functions
  resetBoundingBox() {
    if (tooltip.style.left || tooltip.style.transform) {
      tooltip.style.left = null
      tooltip.style.transform = null
    }

    this.initialiseClassList()
  }
}

Array.from(document.querySelectorAll('.tooltip-container')).forEach(element => new Tooltip(element))

              
            
!
999px

Console