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HTML

              
                <section>
	<div id="canvasBase">
		<canvas id="landscapeCanvas" width="350" height="350"></canvas>
		<canvas id="gradientCanvas" width="25" height="350"></canvas>
		<div class="textureDetails">
			<h4>Texture Details</h4>
			<p>
				<label><input id="iSeed" type="number" value="12345" onchange="updateSeed(this);"/> SEED</label>
			<button onclick="setRandomSeed()">RANDOM</button><br/>
				<label><input id="iScale" type="number" value=".007" onchange="updateScale(this);"/> SCALE</label> (default .007)<br/>
				<label><input id="iOctaves" type="number" value="8" onchange="updateOctaves(this);"/> OCTAVES</label> (default 8)<br/>
				<label><input id="iComplexity" type="number" value=".5" onchange="updateComplexity(this);"/> COMPLEXITY</label>(default .5)<br/>
				<label><input id="iViewAngle" type="number" value=".33" onchange="changeViewAngle(this);"/> ELEVATION</label>(default .33)<br/>
				<label><input id="iPixelSize" type="number" value="3" onchange="setPixelSize(this);"/> PIXEL SIZE</label>(default 3)<br/>
				<label><input id="iRotationSpeed" type="number" value="3" onchange="setRotationSpeed(this);"/> ROTATION SPEED</label>(default 3, +/- for C/CW)<br/>
				<label>
					<select onchange="setGradient(this)">
						<option value="0" selected="selected">Grayscale</option>
						<option value="1">Default Landscape</option>
						<option value="2">Plasma</option>
						<option value="3">Brilliant</option>
						<option value="4">Stripes</option>
					</select> SAMPLE GRADIENTS
				</label>
			</p>
			<p class="gradientTools">
				<button onclick="renderLandscape('new')">RENDER</button>
				<button onclick="toggleRender()">PERSPECTIVE</button>
				<button onclick="togglePause()">ROTATE</button>
			</p>
		</div>
	</div>
	<div id="inputBase">
		<h4>Gradient Inputs</h4>
		<div id="gradientStopsBase"></div>
	</div>
</section>

              
            
!

CSS

              
                section {
	width: 720px;
	min-height: 350px;
}
#canvasBase {
	float: left;
	width: 400px;
}
#gradientCanvas {
	width: 25px;
	height: 350px;
	outline: 1px solid rgb(0,0,0);
	float: left;
}
#landscapeCanvas {
	width: 350px;
	height: 350px;
	outline: 1px solid rgb(0,0,0);
	margin-right: 10px;
	float: left;
}
.textureDetails {
	clear: both;
	padding-top: 10px;
}
label {
	margin-right: .5em;
}
input {
	width: 25px;
}
#canvasBase input, #canvasBase select {
	width: 100px
}
button {
	padding: 1px 2px;
}
label, input, button, select, p, h4 {
	font: 11px courier, monospace;
}
h4 {
	font-size: 16px;
	margin: 10px 0;
}
#inputBase {
	float: left;
	width: 320px;
}
#inputBase p {
	margin: 0 0 4px 0;
}
.textureDetails label {
	display: inline-block;
	margin-bottom: 3px;
}
#outputText {
	width: 250px;
	height: 100px;
}
              
            
!

JS

              
                //	gradient canvas
let gradientSteps = 256;
let gradientOutput = [];
let gCanvasW = 25;
let gCanvasH = 350;
let gCanvas;
let gContext;

// terrain canvas
let lCanvasWidth = 350;
let lCanvasHeight = 350;
let lCanvas;
let lContext;
let landscapeData = [];
let landscapeWidth = 300;
let landscapeHeight = 300;
let centerX = 175;
let centerY = 175;
let renderStyle = 'flat';

// animation
let timer = null;
let isPaused = true;

// noise variables
let simplexNoise;
let seed = Math.round(Math.random()* 10000000);	//	random offset from 0 for space in the noise
let scale = .007;
let octaves = 8;
let complexity = .5;
let viewAngle = .33; 
let pixelSize = 3;
let rotationSpeed = 3;
let selectedGradient = [];
let selectedGradientIndex = 0;
let degrees = 0;

let sorted = [];
let isNew = true;

//	sample gradients
let gradientStops = [
	[	//	grayscale
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 0 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 100 }
	],
	[	//	default landscape
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 0 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 102,	pct: 25 },
		{ r: 102,	g: 153,	b: 255,	pct: 33 },
		{ r: 204,	g: 204,	b: 255,	pct: 40 },
		{ r: 204,	g: 153,	b: 51,	pct: 43 },
		{ r: 153,	g: 255,	b: 153,	pct: 45 },
		{ r: 102,	g: 204,	b: 102,	pct: 65 },
		{ r: 51,	g: 102,	b: 51,	pct: 75 },
		{ r: 153,	g: 153,	b: 153,	pct: 85 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 100 }
	],
	[	//	plasma
		{ r: 255,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 0 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 255,	b: 0,	pct: 33 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 255,	pct: 66 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 0,	b: 255,	pct: 100 }
	],
	[	//	briliant
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 0 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 9 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 18 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 0,	pct: 27 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 36 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 0,	b: 255,	pct: 45 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 54 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 63 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 72 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 128,	b: 0,	pct: 81 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 90 },
		{ r: 128,	g: 255,	b: 0,	pct: 100 }
	],
	[	//	stripes
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 0 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 5 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 10 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 15 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 20 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 25 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 30 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 35 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 40 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 45 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 50 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 55 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 60 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 65 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 70 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 75 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 80 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 85 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 90 },
		{ r: 255,	g: 255,	b: 255,	pct: 95 },
		{ r: 0,	g: 0,	b: 0,	pct: 100 }
	]
];

//	start the whole thing off
function init() {
	gCanvas = document.getElementById('gradientCanvas');
	gContext = gCanvas.getContext('2d', {alpha: false });

	lCanvas = document.getElementById('landscapeCanvas');
	lContext = lCanvas.getContext('2d', {alpha: false});
	
	selectedGradient = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(gradientStops[selectedGradientIndex]));
	
	simplexNoise = new SimplexNoise();
	
	renderGradient();
	renderUI();
	renderLandscape('new');
}

// select a sample gradient
function setGradient(e) {
	selectedGradientIndex = parseInt(e.options[e.selectedIndex].value);
	selectedGradient = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(gradientStops[selectedGradientIndex]));

	renderGradient();
	renderUI();
	renderLandscape();
}

// calculate the 256 color values for the gradient
function calculateGradient() {
	let thisStop = 0;
	let nextStop = 0;
	gradientOutput = [];
	for(let i = 0; i < selectedGradient.length - 1; i++) {
		thisStop = selectedGradient[i].pct / 100; 
		nextStop = selectedGradient[i + 1].pct / 100;
		let stepsForThisStop = Math.round(gradientSteps * (nextStop - thisStop));
		let stepR = (selectedGradient[i + 1].r - selectedGradient[i].r) / stepsForThisStop;
		let stepG = (selectedGradient[i + 1].g - selectedGradient[i].g) / stepsForThisStop;
		let stepB = (selectedGradient[i + 1].b - selectedGradient[i].b) / stepsForThisStop;		
		for(let j = 0; j < stepsForThisStop; j++) {
			gradientOutput.push({
				r: selectedGradient[i].r + Math.round(stepR * j),
				g: selectedGradient[i].g + Math.round(stepG * j),
				b: selectedGradient[i].b + Math.round(stepB * j)
			});
		}
	}
	if(gradientOutput.length < 256) {
		for(let i = gradientOutput.length; i < 256; i++) {
			gradientOutput.push({
				r: selectedGradient[selectedGradient.length - 1].r,
				g: selectedGradient[selectedGradient.length - 1].g,
				b: selectedGradient[selectedGradient.length - 1].b
			});
		}
	}
}

//	render the gradient stripe
function renderGradient() {
	calculateGradient();
	gContext.clearRect(0, 0, gCanvasW, gCanvasH);
	let stepWidth = (gCanvasW / gradientSteps);
	let stepHeight = (gCanvasH / gradientSteps);
	for(let i = 0; i < gradientSteps; i++) {
		let gY = gCanvasH - ((i + 1) * stepHeight);
		gContext.fillStyle = 'rgb(' 
			+ gradientOutput[i].r + ',' 
			+ gradientOutput[i].g + ',' 
			+ gradientOutput[i].b + ')';
		gContext.fillRect(0, gY, gCanvasW, stepHeight);
	}
}

//	render the gradient value input grid
function renderUI() {
	let output = ``;
	for(let i = selectedGradient.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
		output += `<p id="${'g'+i}" class="gradientStop">
			<label><b>${i}</b></label>
			<label>R:<input id="${'r-' + i}" 
						type="text" 
						value="${selectedGradient[i].r}"
						onchange="updateColor(${i},'r')" /></label>
			<label>G:<input id="${'g-' + i}" 
						type="text" 
						value="${selectedGradient[i].g}" 
						onchange="updateColor(${i},'g')" /></label>
			<label>B:<input id="${'b-' + i}" 
						type="text" 
						value="${selectedGradient[i].b}" 
						onchange="updateColor(${i},'b')" /></label>
			<label>%:<input id="${'pct-' + i}" 
						type="text" 
						value="${selectedGradient[i].pct}" 
						onchange="updateColor(${i},'pct')"/></label>`;
		if(i < selectedGradient.length - 1) {
			output += `<button onclick="addOneBelow(${i})">+</button> `;
		}
		if(selectedGradient.length > 2) {
			output += `<button onclick="removeThis(${i})"> &times; </button>`;
		}
		output += `</p>`;
	}
	document.getElementById('gradientStopsBase').innerHTML = output;
}

//	add a new color stop after the current stop
function addOneBelow(index) {
	let newStop = {
		r: selectedGradient[index].r,
		g: selectedGradient[index].g,
		b: selectedGradient[index].b,
		pct: selectedGradient[index].pct
	}
	selectedGradient.splice(index, 0, newStop);
	renderGradient();
	renderUI();
}

//	remove this color stop
function removeThis(index) {
	selectedGradient.splice(index, 1);
	renderGradient();
	renderUI();
}

//	change between flat and perspective render of the terrain
function toggleRender() {
	renderStyle = (renderStyle==='flat') ? 'iso' : 'flat';
	renderLandscape('');
}

//	update color value of an existing stop, based on input from the color grid
function updateColor(index, type) {
	selectedGradient[index][type] = parseInt(document.getElementById(type + '-' + index).value);
	renderGradient();
}

//	update the seed for the Simplex Noise, based on user input
function updateSeed(e) {
	seed = parseInt(e.value);
	renderLandscape('');
}

//	set a random seed for the Simplex Noise
function setRandomSeed() {
	seed = Math.round(Math.random() * 10000000);
	document.getElementById('iSeed').value = seed;
	renderLandscape('new');
}

//	update the 'zoom' of the Simplex Noise
function updateScale(e) {
	scale = parseFloat(e.value);
	renderLandscape('new');
}

//	update the fractal depth of the Simplex Noise
function updateOctaves(e) {
	octaves = parseInt(e.value);
	if (octaves < 1) {
		octaves = 1;
		e.value = octaves;
	}
	renderLandscape('new');
}

//	update the complexity of the Simplex Noise
function updateComplexity(e) {
	complexity = parseFloat(e.value);
	renderLandscape('new');
}

//	change the vertical offset of the color layers in the terrain
function changeViewAngle(e) {
	viewAngle = parseFloat(e.value);
	renderLandscape('');
}

//	set the size of the color fills in the terrain
function setPixelSize(e) {
	pixelSize = parseInt(e.value);
	renderLandscape('new');
}

//	set the rotation speed and direction of the animation
function setRotationSpeed(e) {
	rotationSpeed = parseInt(e.value);
	if(rotationSpeed === 0) rotationSpeed = 1;
	e.value = rotationSpeed;
	renderLandscape(''); 
}

//	render a new grid of Simplex Noise values
function renderLandscape(type) {
	isNew = (type === 'new');
	cancelAnimationFrame(timer);
	if(isNew === true) {
		// create 2d grid of height data 
		landscapeData = [];
		for(let i = 0; i < landscapeWidth; i++) {
			landscapeData.push([]);
			for (let j = 0; j < landscapeHeight; j++) {
				landscapeData[i].push(Math.round(sumOctave(octaves, i + seed, j + seed, complexity, scale, 0, 255)));
			}
		}

		// sort individual values into grid of x/y coordinates
		sorted = [];
		for(let i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
			sorted.push([]);
		}
		// iterate through random values and push x/y coords to new array
		for(let i = 0; i < landscapeData.length; i++) {
			for(let j = 0; j < landscapeData[i].length; j++) {
				// create a circular space
				let iOff = -landscapeWidth / 2 + i;
				let jOff = -landscapeWidth / 2 + j;
				if(Math.sqrt(iOff * iOff + jOff * jOff) < (landscapeWidth / 2)) {
					sorted[landscapeData[i][j]].push([i,j]);
				}
				
			}
		}
	}
	rotate();
}

//	toggle between pause and rotate
function togglePause() {
	isPaused = !isPaused;
	if(isPaused) cancelAnimationFrame(timer);
	if(!isPaused) timer = requestAnimationFrame(rotate);
}

//	rotate the terrain by one tick
function rotate() {	
	let angle = degrees * Math.PI / 180;
	let cos = Math.cos(angle);
	let sin = Math.sin(angle);

	lContext.fillStyle = 'rgb(0,0,0)';
	lContext.fillRect(0, 0, lCanvas.width, lCanvas.height);
	let originX = 0, 
		originY = 0, 
		rotatedX = 0,
		rotatedY = 0; 
	for(let i = 0; i < sorted.length; i++) {
		for(let j = 0; j < sorted[i].length; j++)  {
			originX = -(landscapeWidth / 2) + sorted[i][j][0];
			originY = -(landscapeHeight / 2) + sorted[i][j][1];
			rotatedX = ((originX * cos) - (originY * sin)) + centerX - (pixelSize / 2);
			if(renderStyle === 'iso') {
				rotatedY = (((originX * sin) + (originY * cos) - i) * viewAngle) + centerY + (viewAngle * 100) - (pixelSize / 2);
			} else {
				rotatedY = (((originX * sin) + (originY * cos))) + centerY - (pixelSize / 2);
			}
			lContext.fillStyle = 'rgb(' 
				+ gradientOutput[i].r + ',' 
				+ gradientOutput[i].g + ',' 
				+ gradientOutput[i].b + ')';
			lContext.fillRect(rotatedX, rotatedY, pixelSize, pixelSize);
		}
	}

	if(!isPaused) {
		degrees += rotationSpeed;
		timer = requestAnimationFrame(rotate);
	}
}

/* SIMPLEX NOISE 
	This is copied from Sean McCullough's GIT repository here:
	(https://gist.github.com/slowkow/ac8e2d3d4117ed5ff288bdbd8699b34b) 
	All following comments created by original developer
*/
// Ported from Stefan Gustavson's java implementation
// http://staffwww.itn.liu.se/~stegu/simplexnoise/simplexnoise.pdf
// Read Stefan's excellent paper for details on how this code works.
//
// Sean McCullough banksean@gmail.com

/**
 * You can pass in a random number generator object if you like.
 * It is assumed to have a random() method.
 */
var SimplexNoise = function(r) {
	if (r == undefined) r = Math;
	this.grad3 = [[1,1,0],[-1,1,0],[1,-1,0],[-1,-1,0], 
				  [1,0,1],[-1,0,1],[1,0,-1],[-1,0,-1], 
				  [0,1,1],[0,-1,1],[0,1,-1],[0,-1,-1]]; 
	this.p = [];
	for (var i=0; i<256; i++) {
		this.p[i] = Math.floor(r.random()*256);
	}
	// To remove the need for index wrapping, double the permutation table length 
	this.perm = []; 
	for(var i=0; i<512; i++) {
		this.perm[i]=this.p[i & 255];
	} 

	// A lookup table to traverse the simplex around a given point in 4D. 
	// Details can be found where this table is used, in the 4D noise method. 
	this.simplex = [ 
		[0,1,2,3],[0,1,3,2],[0,0,0,0],[0,2,3,1],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[1,2,3,0], 
		[0,2,1,3],[0,0,0,0],[0,3,1,2],[0,3,2,1],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[1,3,2,0], 
		[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0], 
		[1,2,0,3],[0,0,0,0],[1,3,0,2],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[2,3,0,1],[2,3,1,0], 
		[1,0,2,3],[1,0,3,2],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[2,0,3,1],[0,0,0,0],[2,1,3,0], 
		[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0], 
		[2,0,1,3],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[3,0,1,2],[3,0,2,1],[0,0,0,0],[3,1,2,0], 
		[2,1,0,3],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[0,0,0,0],[3,1,0,2],[0,0,0,0],[3,2,0,1],[3,2,1,0]]; 
};

SimplexNoise.prototype.dot = function(g, x, y) { 
	return g[0]*x + g[1]*y;
};

SimplexNoise.prototype.noise = function(xin, yin) { 
	var n0, n1, n2; // Noise contributions from the three corners 
	// Skew the input space to determine which simplex cell we're in 
	var F2 = 0.5*(Math.sqrt(3.0)-1.0); 
	var s = (xin+yin)*F2; // Hairy factor for 2D 
	var i = Math.floor(xin+s); 
	var j = Math.floor(yin+s); 
	var G2 = (3.0-Math.sqrt(3.0))/6.0; 
	var t = (i+j)*G2; 
	var X0 = i-t; // Unskew the cell origin back to (x,y) space 
	var Y0 = j-t; 
	var x0 = xin-X0; // The x,y distances from the cell origin 
	var y0 = yin-Y0; 
	// For the 2D case, the simplex shape is an equilateral triangle. 
	// Determine which simplex we are in. 
	var i1, j1; // Offsets for second (middle) corner of simplex in (i,j) coords 
	if(x0>y0) {i1=1; j1=0;} // lower triangle, XY order: (0,0)->(1,0)->(1,1) 
	else {i1=0; j1=1;}      // upper triangle, YX order: (0,0)->(0,1)->(1,1) 
	// A step of (1,0) in (i,j) means a step of (1-c,-c) in (x,y), and 
	// a step of (0,1) in (i,j) means a step of (-c,1-c) in (x,y), where 
	// c = (3-sqrt(3))/6 
	var x1 = x0 - i1 + G2; // Offsets for middle corner in (x,y) unskewed coords 
	var y1 = y0 - j1 + G2; 
	var x2 = x0 - 1.0 + 2.0 * G2; // Offsets for last corner in (x,y) unskewed coords 
	var y2 = y0 - 1.0 + 2.0 * G2; 
	// Work out the hashed gradient indices of the three simplex corners 
	var ii = i & 255; 
	var jj = j & 255; 
	var gi0 = this.perm[ii+this.perm[jj]] % 12; 
	var gi1 = this.perm[ii+i1+this.perm[jj+j1]] % 12; 
	var gi2 = this.perm[ii+1+this.perm[jj+1]] % 12; 
	// Calculate the contribution from the three corners 
	var t0 = 0.5 - x0*x0-y0*y0; 
	if(t0<0) n0 = 0.0; 
	else { 
		t0 *= t0; 
		n0 = t0 * t0 * this.dot(this.grad3[gi0], x0, y0);  // (x,y) of grad3 used for 2D gradient 
	} 
	var t1 = 0.5 - x1*x1-y1*y1; 
	if(t1<0) n1 = 0.0; 
	else { 
		t1 *= t1; 
		n1 = t1 * t1 * this.dot(this.grad3[gi1], x1, y1); 
	}
	var t2 = 0.5 - x2*x2-y2*y2; 
	if(t2<0) n2 = 0.0; 
	else { 
		t2 *= t2; 
		n2 = t2 * t2 * this.dot(this.grad3[gi2], x2, y2); 
	} 
	// Add contributions from each corner to get the final noise value. 
	// The result is scaled to return values in the interval [-1,1]. 
	return 70.0 * (n0 + n1 + n2); 
};

// 3D simplex noise 
SimplexNoise.prototype.noise3d = function(xin, yin, zin) { 
	var n0, n1, n2, n3; // Noise contributions from the four corners 
	// Skew the input space to determine which simplex cell we're in 
	var F3 = 1.0/3.0; 
	var s = (xin+yin+zin)*F3; // Very nice and simple skew factor for 3D 
	var i = Math.floor(xin+s); 
	var j = Math.floor(yin+s); 
	var k = Math.floor(zin+s); 
	var G3 = 1.0/6.0; // Very nice and simple unskew factor, too 
	var t = (i+j+k)*G3; 
	var X0 = i-t; // Unskew the cell origin back to (x,y,z) space 
	var Y0 = j-t; 
	var Z0 = k-t; 
	var x0 = xin-X0; // The x,y,z distances from the cell origin 
	var y0 = yin-Y0; 
	var z0 = zin-Z0; 
	// For the 3D case, the simplex shape is a slightly irregular tetrahedron. 
	// Determine which simplex we are in. 
	var i1, j1, k1; // Offsets for second corner of simplex in (i,j,k) coords 
	var i2, j2, k2; // Offsets for third corner of simplex in (i,j,k) coords 
	if(x0>=y0) { 
		if(y0>=z0) 
		{ i1=1; j1=0; k1=0; i2=1; j2=1; k2=0; } // X Y Z order 
		else if(x0>=z0) { i1=1; j1=0; k1=0; i2=1; j2=0; k2=1; } // X Z Y order 
		else { i1=0; j1=0; k1=1; i2=1; j2=0; k2=1; } // Z X Y order 
	} 
	else { // x0<y0 
		if(y0<z0) { i1=0; j1=0; k1=1; i2=0; j2=1; k2=1; } // Z Y X order 
		else if(x0<z0) { i1=0; j1=1; k1=0; i2=0; j2=1; k2=1; } // Y Z X order 
		else { i1=0; j1=1; k1=0; i2=1; j2=1; k2=0; } // Y X Z order 
	} 
	// A step of (1,0,0) in (i,j,k) means a step of (1-c,-c,-c) in (x,y,z), 
	// a step of (0,1,0) in (i,j,k) means a step of (-c,1-c,-c) in (x,y,z), and 
	// a step of (0,0,1) in (i,j,k) means a step of (-c,-c,1-c) in (x,y,z), where 
	// c = 1/6.
	var x1 = x0 - i1 + G3; // Offsets for second corner in (x,y,z) coords 
	var y1 = y0 - j1 + G3; 
	var z1 = z0 - k1 + G3; 
	var x2 = x0 - i2 + 2.0*G3; // Offsets for third corner in (x,y,z) coords 
	var y2 = y0 - j2 + 2.0*G3; 
	var z2 = z0 - k2 + 2.0*G3; 
	var x3 = x0 - 1.0 + 3.0*G3; // Offsets for last corner in (x,y,z) coords 
	var y3 = y0 - 1.0 + 3.0*G3; 
	var z3 = z0 - 1.0 + 3.0*G3; 
	// Work out the hashed gradient indices of the four simplex corners 
	var ii = i & 255; 
	var jj = j & 255; 
	var kk = k & 255; 
	var gi0 = this.perm[ii+this.perm[jj+this.perm[kk]]] % 12; 
	var gi1 = this.perm[ii+i1+this.perm[jj+j1+this.perm[kk+k1]]] % 12; 
	var gi2 = this.perm[ii+i2+this.perm[jj+j2+this.perm[kk+k2]]] % 12; 
	var gi3 = this.perm[ii+1+this.perm[jj+1+this.perm[kk+1]]] % 12; 
	// Calculate the contribution from the four corners 
	var t0 = 0.6 - x0*x0 - y0*y0 - z0*z0; 
	if(t0<0) n0 = 0.0; 
	else { 
		t0 *= t0; 
		n0 = t0 * t0 * this.dot(this.grad3[gi0], x0, y0, z0); 
	}
	var t1 = 0.6 - x1*x1 - y1*y1 - z1*z1; 
	if(t1<0) n1 = 0.0; 
	else { 
		t1 *= t1; 
		n1 = t1 * t1 * this.dot(this.grad3[gi1], x1, y1, z1); 
	} 
	var t2 = 0.6 - x2*x2 - y2*y2 - z2*z2; 
	if(t2<0) n2 = 0.0; 
	else { 
		t2 *= t2; 
		n2 = t2 * t2 * this.dot(this.grad3[gi2], x2, y2, z2); 
	} 
	var t3 = 0.6 - x3*x3 - y3*y3 - z3*z3; 
	if(t3<0) n3 = 0.0; 
	else { 
		t3 *= t3; 
		n3 = t3 * t3 * this.dot(this.grad3[gi3], x3, y3, z3); 
	} 
	// Add contributions from each corner to get the final noise value. 
	// The result is scaled to stay just inside [-1,1] 
	return 32.0*(n0 + n1 + n2 + n3); 
};

//	sumOctave method originally written by Christian Maher, from here: 
//	https://cmaher.github.io/posts/working-with-simplex-noise/
//	translated to Javascript 2020.10.01 by John Winkelman
function sumOctave(num_iterations, x, y, persistence, scale, low, high) {
	let maxAmp = 0;
	let amp = 1;
	let freq = scale;
	let noise = 0;

	// add successively smaller, higher-frequency terms
	for(let i = 0; i < num_iterations; i++) {
		noise += simplexNoise.noise(x * freq, y * freq) * amp;
		maxAmp += amp;
		amp *= persistence;
		freq *= 2;
	}
	// take the average value of the iterations
	noise /= maxAmp;

	// normalize the result
	noise = noise * (high - low) / 2 + (high + low) / 2;
	return noise;
}

/*  /SIMPLEX NOISE */

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