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              <!-- 来自 http://webglfundamentals.org/ -->
<canvas id="c"></canvas>
<!-- you can and should delete this script. it is only used on the site to help with errors -->
<script id="2d-vertex-shader" type="notjs">

  // an attribute will receive data from a buffer
  attribute vec4 a_position;

  // all shaders have a main function
  void main() {

    // gl_Position is a special variable a vertex shader
    // is responsible for setting
    gl_Position = a_position;

<script id="2d-fragment-shader" type="notjs">

  // fragment shaders don't have a default precision so we need
  // to pick one. mediump is a good default
  precision mediump float;

  void main() {
    // gl_FragColor is a special variable a fragment shader
    // is responsible for setting
    gl_FragColor = vec4(1, 0, 0.5, 1); // return redish-purple

for most samples webgl-utils only provides shader compiling/linking and
canvas resizing because why clutter the examples with code that's the same in every sample.
See http://webglfundamentals.org/webgl/lessons/webgl-boilerplate.html
and http://webglfundamentals.org/webgl/lessons/webgl-resizing-the-canvas.html
for webgl-utils, m3, m4, and webgl-lessons-ui.
<script src="https://webglfundamentals.org/webgl/resources/webgl-utils.js"></script>
<script src="https://webglfundamentals.org/webgl/resources/webgl-lessons-helper.js"></script>

              @import url("https://webglfundamentals.org/webgl/resources/webgl-tutorials.css");
body {
  margin: 0;
canvas {
  width: 100vw;
  height: 100vh;
  display: block;

              // WebGL - Fundamentals
// from https://webglfundamentals.org/webgl/webgl-fundamentals.html

  "use strict";

function createShader(gl, type, source) {
  var shader = gl.createShader(type);
  gl.shaderSource(shader, source);
  var success = gl.getShaderParameter(shader, gl.COMPILE_STATUS);
  if (success) {
    return shader;


function createProgram(gl, vertexShader, fragmentShader) {
  var program = gl.createProgram();
  gl.attachShader(program, vertexShader);
  gl.attachShader(program, fragmentShader);
  var success = gl.getProgramParameter(program, gl.LINK_STATUS);
  if (success) {
    return program;


function main() {
  // Get A WebGL context
  var canvas = document.getElementById("c");
  var gl = canvas.getContext("webgl");
  if (!gl) {

  // Get the strings for our GLSL shaders
  var vertexShaderSource = document.getElementById("2d-vertex-shader").text;
  var fragmentShaderSource = document.getElementById("2d-fragment-shader").text;

  // create GLSL shaders, upload the GLSL source, compile the shaders
  var vertexShader = createShader(gl, gl.VERTEX_SHADER, vertexShaderSource);
  var fragmentShader = createShader(gl, gl.FRAGMENT_SHADER, fragmentShaderSource);

  // Link the two shaders into a program
  var program = createProgram(gl, vertexShader, fragmentShader);

  // look up where the vertex data needs to go.
  var positionAttributeLocation = gl.getAttribLocation(program, "a_position");

  // Create a buffer and put three 2d clip space points in it
  var positionBuffer = gl.createBuffer();

  // Bind it to ARRAY_BUFFER (think of it as ARRAY_BUFFER = positionBuffer)
  gl.bindBuffer(gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, positionBuffer);

  var positions = [
    0, 0,
    0, 0.5,
    0.7, 0,
  gl.bufferData(gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, new Float32Array(positions), gl.STATIC_DRAW);

  // code above this line is initialization code.
  // code below this line is rendering code.


  // Tell WebGL how to convert from clip space to pixels
  gl.viewport(0, 0, gl.canvas.width, gl.canvas.height);

  // Clear the canvas
  gl.clearColor(0, 0, 0, 0);

  // Tell it to use our program (pair of shaders)

  // Turn on the attribute

  // Bind the position buffer.
  gl.bindBuffer(gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, positionBuffer);

  // Tell the attribute how to get data out of positionBuffer (ARRAY_BUFFER)
  var size = 2;          // 2 components per iteration
  var type = gl.FLOAT;   // the data is 32bit floats
  var normalize = false; // don't normalize the data
  var stride = 0;        // 0 = move forward size * sizeof(type) each iteration to get the next position
  var offset = 0;        // start at the beginning of the buffer
      positionAttributeLocation, size, type, normalize, stride, offset)

  // draw
  var primitiveType = gl.TRIANGLES;
  var offset = 0;
  var count = 3;
  gl.drawArrays(primitiveType, offset, count);



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