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        <h1 class="text-center">A Man, <br> A Mother, <br> and A Rugby Tournament</h1>
          <br>
        <h3 class="text-center"><em>A bit of information about Mark Kendall Bingham, his mother Alice Hoaglan, and the Bingham Cup Tournament named in his memory</em></h3>
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        <div class="thumbnail">
          <image src="http://www.advocate.com/sites/advocate.com/files/2012/09/10/alice-and-mark-bingham01x400.jpg">
        <div class="caption text-center"><em>Alice Hoagland and Mark Kendall Bingham (Photo courtesy of Advocate.com)</em></div>
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          <br>
        <p>Mark Kendall Bingham (May 22, 1970 – September 11, 2001) was an American public relations executive who founded his own company, the Bingham Group. During the September 11 attacks in 2001 he was a passenger on board United Airlines Flight 93. Bingham was among the passengers who, along with Todd Beamer, Tom Burnett and Jeremy Glick, stormed the hijackers to retake the plane, and led the effort that resulted in the crash of the plane into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, thwarting the hijackers plan to crash the plane into a building in Washington, D.C. Bingham is the only child of mother Alice Hoagland and father Gerald Bingham. He grew up in Miami, Florida, and Southern California before moving to the San Jose area in 1983. He was an aspiring filmmaker growing up, and began using a video camera as a teenager as a personal diary through which he expressed himself and documented his life and the lives of his family and friends. He accumulated hundreds of hours of video documenting the final decade and a half of his life. He graduated from Los Gatos High School as a two-year captain of his rugby team in 1988. As an undergraduate at the University of California, Berkeley, Bingham played on their national-championship-winning rugby teams in the early 1990s. A large athlete at 6ft 4in and 225 pounds, Bingham also played for the gay-inclusive rugby union team San Francisco Fog RFC He played in their first tournament, and taught his teammates his favorite rugby songs. He had recently opened a satellite office of his public relations firm in New York City, and was spending more time on the East Coast. He discussed plans with his friend Scott Glaessgen to form a New York City rugby team, the Gotham Knights RFC.<br><br>
On the morning of September 11, Bingham overslept and nearly missed his flight, on his way to San Francisco. He arrived at the Terminal A at 7:40am, ran to Gate 17, and was the last passenger to board United Airlines Flight 93, taking seat 4D, next to passenger Tom Burnett. United Flight 93 was scheduled to depart at 8:00am, but the Boeing 757 did not depart until 42 minutes later due to runway traffic delays. Four minutes later, American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the World Trade Center's North Tower. Fifteen minutes later, at 9:03 am, as United Flight 175 crashed into the South Tower, United 93 was climbing to cruising altitude, heading west over New Jersey and into Pennsylvania. At 9:25 am, Flight 93 was above eastern Ohio, and pilots Jason Dahl and LeRoy Homer received an alert, "beware of cockpit intrusion," on the cockpit computer device ACARS (Aircraft Communications and Reporting System). Three minutes later, Cleveland controllers could hear screams over the cockpit's open microphone. Moments later the hijackers took over the plane's controls, disengaged the autopilot, and told passengers, "Keep remain seated. We have a bomb board". Bingham and the other passengers were herded into the back of the plane. The curtain between first class and second class had been drawn, at which point the pilot and co-pilot were seen lying dead on the floor just outside the curtain, their throats having been cut. Within six minutes, the plane changed course and was heading for Washington, D.C. Several of the passengers made phone calls to loved ones, who informed them about the two planes that had crashed into the World Trade Center. Bingham phoned his mother, Alice Hoagland, reporting that his plane had been hijacked and relaying his love for her.<br><br>
After the hijackers veered the plane sharply south, the passengers decided to act. Bingham, along with Todd Beamer, Tom Burnett and Jeremy Glick formed a plan to take the plane back from the hijackers. They were joined by other passengers, including Lou Nacke, Rich Guadagno, Alan Beaven, Elizabeth Wainio, Linda Gronlund, and William Cashman, along with flight attendants Sandra Bradshaw and Cee Cee Ross-Lyles, in discussing their options and voting on a course of action, ultimately deciding to storm the cockpit and take over the plane. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, after the plane's voice data recorder was recovered, it revealed pounding and crashing sounds against the cockpit door and shouts and screams in English. "Let's get them!" a passenger cries. Hijackers repeatedly pitched the plane to knock passengers off their feet, but the passengers apparently managed to invade the cockpit, where one was heard shouting, "In the cockpit. If we don't, we'll die." At 10:02 am, a hijacker ordered, "Pull it down! Pull it down!" The 9/11 Commission later reported that the plane's control wheel was turned hard to the right, causing it to roll on its back and plow into an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 580 miles an hour, killing everyone on board. The plane was twenty minutes of flying time away from its suspected target in Washington, D.C.<br><br>
The Mark Kendall Bingham Memorial Tournament (referred to as the Bingham Cup) is a biennial international rugby union competition (predominantly for gay and bisexual men, non-professional players) that was established in 2002 in his memory. Alice Hoagland has attended the tournaments that have been held in honor of her son and socializes with as many players and attendees that she can. Along with attending the tournament and festivities, Alice is the person that hands the awards to the winning team in each of their pools of play.<br><br>
          The 2012 feature-length documentary <em>With You</em> focuses on Bingham and the bond he had with his mother, Alice Hoagland, a former United Airlines flight attendant who, following his death, became a nationally known authority on airline safety and a champion of LGBT rights. The film relies on the vast amount of video footage Bingham himself shot beginning in his teens until weeks before his death and the title is a popular rugby term, and one of Bingham's favorite expressions.</p>
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          <image src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/12.6.11MarkBinghamPanelS-67ByLuigiNovi3.jpg">
            <div class="caption text-center"><em>Bingham's name as it is located on Panel S-67 of the National September 11 Memorial's South Pool, along with those of other passengers of Flight 93.</em></div>
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            <br>
        <h2 class="text-center"><em>Mark Kendall Bingham  <br> Memorial Tournament <br> (Bingham Cup) Timeline</em></h2>
          <br>
          <ul>
            <li><strong>Washington Invitational, 2001</strong><br>In May 2001, in a precursor to the tournament, the Washington Renegades hosted an IGRAB International Invitational for gay rugby union teams in Washington D.C., USA. The event was officially a sevens tournament among the existing IGRAB teams at the time. In addition to the tournament, there was an exhibition XVs matches. In the exhibition match between the San Francisco Fog RFC and the Renegades, the two played against each other for the first time in a XVs match. The Fog won 19-0.</li><br><br>
            <li><strong>San Francisco, 2002</strong><br>In October 2001, following the 2001 invitational, the San Francisco Fog successfully lobbied IGRAB for the right to put on a XVs rugby tournament in San Francisco in June 2002. The tournament was fashioned in the style of the Rugby World Cup, both the tournament and the cup prize were named for Mark Kendall Bingham, a club founder, with the name Bingham Cup later becoming the informal name. Eight teams traveled to San Francisco during gay pride weekend of June 28–29, 2002 to compete over two days with the Fog coming out on top as the Cup’s first winners. The event was sponsored by Nike and Guinness and was covered by press from around the world, including ESPN. The Fog A side emerged undefeated, defeating the London Kings Cross Steelers 27-5 in the final. Alice Hoagland, Mark Bingham’s mom, presented the Fog with the trophy. The event was profiled in a two-page article in Rugby World magazine.</li><br><br>
            <li><strong>London, 2004</strong><br>In May 2004, the Bingham Cup competition was hosted by London, England, club Kings Cross Steelers. From eight teams just two years prior, twenty teams from four countries were fielded for the 2004 cup, which was won for the second time by the San Francisco Fog RFC. During the 2004 cup, the Bingham Bowl Division was introduced, a middle tier award won by the Philadelphia Gryphons. the inaugural bowl was literally a bowl from the kitchen of the Esher RFC in London.</li><br><br>
            <li><strong>New York, 2006</strong><br>Hosting of the third Bingham Cup was awarded to New York's Gotham Knights RFC in October 2004 in a unanimous vote by the International Gay Rugby Association and Board and was held on Randall's Island in New York's East River on Memorial Day weekend, May 26–28, 2006. 29 teams from 22 clubs in 6 countries participated. The tournament field was divided into 3 divisions, the Bingham Cup for the strongest teams, Bingham Bowl and Bingham Plate. 2006 also included the first ever Women's division, with 2 teams entering. In March 2006, the Bingham Cup Organizing Committee announced that donations would be made to two charities: The Mark Kendall Bingham Leadership Fund, a scholarship established in Bingham's name at the University of California-Berkeley, his alma mater, and the Flight 93 Memorial Fund administered by the National Park Service to be constructed in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. Over 800 registered participants from 29 teams in nine countries took part in the largest Bingham Cup tournament to date. Teams participating for the first time included the Cardiff Lions, the Phoenix Storm, the Portland Avalanche, the Chicago Dragons, the Amsterdam NOP, and the Minneapolis Mayhem. The cup final was between reigning champions San Francisco Fog A and the Sydney Convicts A, who won the game 16-10. Boston Ironsides defeated the Dallas Diablos to win the inaugural Bingham Bowl. Sydney Convicts B beat the World Barbarians to win the Bingham Plate. The 2008 documentary film <em>Walk Like a Man</em> focuses on the Sydney Convicts and San Francisco Fog as they prepare and compete for this Bingham Cup.</li><br><br>        
            <li><strong>Dublin, 2008</strong><br>On December 1, 2006, IGRAB announced the success of the bid of Emerald Warriors to host the 2008 competition in Dublin Ireland. Other bidding cities included Sydney, Australia, and Paris, France. In addition, Las Vegas, Nevada, Seattle, Washington, Cardiff, Wales, and Toronto, Canada also considered bidding to host the 2008 tournament. The fourth Bingham cup was held in Dublin on the weekend of the 13–16 June, at Dublin City University campus. 32 teams competed across four divisions (the Cup, the Plate, the Bowl and the Shield). The Sydney Convicts (A Team) took the cup back with them to Australia after winning the Cup competition for the second time in a row, this time defeating the Kings Cross Steelers (A Team) in the Cup final. The World Barbarians team, made up largely of the Nashville Grizzlies, beat the Sydney Convicts (B Team) in the Plate final. Belfast team the Ulster Titans won the shield. The Atlanta Bucks defeated the Kings Cross Steelers (B Team) in the Bowl division, making them the only North American team to win a title in this year's tournament.</li><br><br>        
            <li><strong>Minneaplis, 2010</strong><br>On January 21, 2009, IGRAB announced that the hosting rights for the 2010 Mark Kendall Bingham Memorial Tournament had been awarded to the Minneapolis Mayhem. The tournament was held at the National Sports Center in Blaine, Minnesota, June 17–20, 2010. The Cup returned to US soil as the 2006 tourney hosts, the Gotham Knights pulled an upset win over the reigning champions, the Sydney Convicts. The 2010 tournament introduced the Crest and Spoon divisions. The Phoenix Storm won the Crest after defeating the Gotham Knights B-Side in the final. The Bingham Spoon was claimed for the first time by the Seattle Quake B when they defeated the Ottawa Wolves in the final.</li><br><br>      
            <li><strong>Manchester, 2012</strong><br>It was announced on September 29, 2010, that the Manchester Village Spartans RUFC, England, would host the 2012 Bingham Cup, beating the Sydney Convicts' bid by 6 votes. Notably, Manchester's bid was actively supported by straight professional English rugby player Ben Cohen. The competition was held at Broughton Park RUFC, Manchester, June 1–3 and boasted the largest number of inclusive teams in the tournament's history.</li><br><br>
            <li><strong>Sydney, 2014</strong><br>In August 2014, the Sydney Convicts brought the Bingham Cup competition to the southern hemisphere. Twenty-four teams traveled to New South Wales, Australia for three rainy days of competition at the home of the Woollahra Colleagues RFC. The home-town Convicts ultimately won the Cup for the second consecutive tournament.</li><br><br>
            <li><strong>Nashville, 2016</strong><br>Hosting of the eighth Bingham Cup was awarded to Tennessee's Nashville Grizzlies, marking the first time the tournament would be held in the American South. The tournament was held at Nashville's Ted Rhodes Park with players housed at Vanderbilt University. Forty-five teams competed for tournament prizes in twelve divisions. The winners of the twelve divisions were as follows: Challenger Julep - Chicago Dragons B, Challenger Cup - Dallas Lost Souls, Hoagland Spoon - Ottawa Wolves, Hoagland Vase - Kings Cross Steelers C, Hoagland Shield - Nashville Grizzlies A, Hoagland Bowl - Columbus Coyotes, Hoagland Cup - Caledonian Thebans, Hoagland Plate - San Diego Armada, Bingham Bowl - World Barbarians, Bingham Shield - Washington Renegades B, Bingham Plate - Gotham Knights A, Bingham Cup - Melbourne Chargers A. In addition, the Nashville tournament hosted the inaugural Bingham Old Boys match and marked the first awarding of the Bingham Cane for the winning team.</li><br><br>
            <li><strong>Bingham Cup 2018</strong><br>On 27 April 2016, International Gay Rugby (IGR) announced the names of the clubs who have submitted a formal Intent to Bid letter for the 2018 Mark Kendall Bingham Memorial Tournament. Three European clubs and one North American club have declared their intention to submit a bid to host the biennial Bingham Cup, recognized globally as the World Championship of Gay and Inclusive Rugby.
The four clubs are:
Muddy York RFC of Toronto, Canada
ARC Amsterdam Lowlanders of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Kings Cross Steelers RFC of London, England, GB
Caledonian Thebans RFC of Edinburgh, Scotland, GB.
The next step in the 2018 Bingham Cup bidding process is the multimedia presentation to the IGR Board at the Annual General Meeting on May 25, 2016, with the formal bid books due to the Trustees at midnight, July 31, 2016. After the trustee review period, approved bid materials will be made public on August 15, 2016, with a follow-up inquiry call during the week of September 8, 2016. IGR expects to announce the award of the 2018 Bingham Cup during the week of September 30, 2016. (Text taken from International Gay Rugby site)</li>
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                        <br>
          <h4>Links to sources used for compiling this tribute page text and images.</h4>
                      <ul>
            <li>Text compiled from Wikipedia entries with some adjustments made to combine two entries into one document for this course work page. For full text see the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Kendall_Bingham_Memorial_Tournament">Mark Kendal Bingham Memorial Wikipedia entry</a> and the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Bingham">Mark Bingham Wikipedia entry</a></li>
                        <br>
            <li>Futher information about the Bingham Cup can be found at <a href="http://www.binghamcup.com">BinghamCup.com</a></li>
                        <br>
            <li>Futher information about International Gay Rugby (IGR)<a href="http://igrugby.org/index.htm">igrugby.org</a></li>
          </ul>
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                <div class="thumbnail">
          <image src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Alice_Hoagland.jpg">
        <div class="caption text-center"><em>Mark Bingham's mother (Alice Hoagland) and his friend Jason Reimuller (R) at training for Bingham Cup 2014 in Sydney.</em></div>            
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