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<h1>Web Audio API<br>- fetch, store, play <span>(volume, loop, fade-in, fade-out)</span>, stop</h1>


<div>
  <h2>Speak &amp; Spell example <span>(hover prefetches, click plays)</span></h2>
  <p class=speak>

    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.zero)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.zero);">Zero</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.one)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.one);">One</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.two)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.two);">Two</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.three)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.three);">Three</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.four)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.four);">Four</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.five)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.five);">Five</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.six)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.six);">Six</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.seven)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.seven);">Seven</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.eight)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.eight);">Eight</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.nine)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.nine);">Nine</button> 
    <button onmouseover="Audio.load(alphabet.ten)" onclick="Audio.play(alphabet.ten);">Ten</button> 
  </p>
</div>


<h2>Exposes methods to play small audio samples upon user interactions.</h2>

<ul>
  <li>Featherweight, compiled &prop; 2.52KB &asymp; 1.02KB gzipped
  <li>Loads audio samples using the Fetch API</li>
  <li>Stores samples into <code>sessionStorage</code> for reuse (available space untested)</li>
  <li>Fetches and plays sample upon demand</li>
  <li>Option to preload a given sample</li>
  <li>Option to loop a sample</li>
  <li>Individual volume and fade-in / fade-out settings</li>
  <li>Errors caught and reported in console.</li>
</ul>

<h2>Monitor the console to see actions:</h2>

<p><button onclick="sessionStorage.clear(); console.clear();">Clear storage and console</button></p>



<h2>Looping</h2>
<p>
  <button onclick="Audio.play(noise)">Noise loop</button>
  <button onclick="Audio.fade(noise)">Fade noise</button>
  <button onclick="Audio.stop(noise)">Stop that bloody racket!</button>

<p><button onclick="Audio.play(track5={path:'https://websemantics.uk/audio/sound.mp3', volume:.125, loop:false});">Example 404 (audio path doesn't exist)</button></p>



<h2>Is the JavaScript no?</h2>


<figure>
  <figcaption>Boolean detection scripts (required)</figcaption>
  <pre><code class=language-javascript spellcheck=false contenteditable=true>var supportsES6=function(){try{return new Function("(a=0)=>a"),!0}catch(n){return!1}}();
var useSessionStorage=function(){try{var e=(new Date).valueOf()+"";return localStorage.setItem(e,e),localStorage.removeItem(e),!0}catch(t){return!1}}();
</code></pre>
</figure>

<figure>
  <figcaption>Google Closure compiled (&prop; 2.52KB &asymp; 1.02KB gzip)</figcaption>
  <pre><code class=language-javascript spellcheck=false contenteditable=true>// Web Audio API - Fetch, store, preload, play (volume, loop), fade, stop - v1.0 MJF @ websemantics.uk
var Audio=function(){function h(a,b){a.audioSource&&d.decodeAudioData(b,function(e){a.audioSource.buffer=e})}function k(a){fetch(a.path).then(function(a){return a.arrayBuffer()}).then(function(b){useSessionStorage&&sessionStorage.setItem(a.path,l.encode(b));return b}).then(function(b){return h(a,b)})["catch"](function(b){return console.log("Fetch "+b,a.path)})}function f(a){a.audioSource&&(clearTimeout(n),a.audioSource.stop())}if(supportsES6){if(!window.AudioContext){if(!window.webkitAudioContext){console.log("Web Audio API is not supported");return}window.AudioContext=window.webkitAudioContext}var d=new AudioContext,n,l=function(){for(var a=new Uint8Array(256),b=0;64&gt;b;b++)a["ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/".charCodeAt(b)]=b;return{encode:function(a){a=new Uint8Array(a);for(var b=a.length,c="",e=0;e&lt;b;e+=3)c+="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/"[a[e]&gt;&gt;2],c+="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/"[(a[e]&3)&lt;&lt;4|a[e+1]&gt;&gt;4],c+="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/"[(a[e+1]&15)&lt;&lt;2|a[e+2]&gt;&gt;6],c+="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/"[a[e+2]&63];2===b%3?c=c.substring(0,c.length-1)+"=":1===b%3&&(c=c.substring(0,c.length-2)+"==");return c},decode:function(b){var e=b.length,c=.75*b.length,d=0;"="===b[b.length-1]&&(c--,"="===b[b.length-2]&&c--);for(var f=new ArrayBuffer(c),m=new Uint8Array(f),g=0;g&lt;e;g+=4){c=a[b.charCodeAt(g)];var h=a[b.charCodeAt(g+1)];var k=a[b.charCodeAt(g+2)];var l=a[b.charCodeAt(g+3)];m[d++]=c&lt;&lt;2|h&gt;&gt;4;m[d++]=(h&15)&lt;&lt;4|k&gt;&gt;2;m[d++]=(k&3)&lt;&lt;6|l&63}return f}}}();return{load:function(a){!useSessionStorage||a.path in sessionStorage||k(a)},play:function(a){f(a);a.audioSource=d.createBufferSource();a.gainNode=d.createGain();a.audioSource.connect(a.gainNode);a.gainNode.connect(d.destination);a.canFade=!0;a:{if(useSessionStorage){var b=sessionStorage.getItem(a.path);if(null!==b){b=l.decode(b);h(a,b);break a}}k(a)}a.volume=0&lt;=a.volume?a.volume:.5;a.fadeIn&&0&lt;a.fadeIn?(a.gainNode.gain.setValueAtTime(0,d.currentTime),a.gainNode.gain.linearRampToValueAtTime(a.volume,d.currentTime+a.fadeIn)):a.gainNode.gain.value=a.volume;a.audioSource.loop=1==a.loop||!1;a.audioSource.start(0,0)},stop:f,fade:function(a){a.canFade&&a.fadeOut&&0&lt;a.fadeOut?(a.gainNode.gain.setValueAtTime(a.volume,d.currentTime),a.gainNode.gain.linearRampToValueAtTime(0,d.currentTime+a.fadeOut),a.canFade=!1,n=setTimeout(function(){f(a)},1E3*a.fadeOut)):f(a)}}}}();</code></pre>
</figure>


<figure>
  <figcaption>Could be defined inline</figcaption>
  <pre><code class=language-markup spellcheck=false contenteditable=true>&lt;button 
  onclick="Audio.play({path:'path/to/sample.mp3'});"&gt;
    Sample
&lt;/button&gt;</code></pre>
</figure>


<figure>
  <figcaption>With preload is better</figcaption>
  <pre><code class=language-markup spellcheck=false contenteditable=true>&lt;button 
  onmouseover="Audio.load(sample = {path:'path/to/sample.mp3'})" 
  onclick="Audio.play(sample);"&gt;
    Sample
&lt;/button&gt;</code></pre>
</figure>


<figure>
  <figcaption>But best defined in JavaScript</figcaption>
  <pre><code class=language-javascript spellcheck=false contenteditable=true>var sample = {
  path : "path/to/sample.mp3",

  volume : 0.5,  // is default, may be omitted

  loop : false, // false is default, may be omitted
  fadeIn: 0.5,   // time in seconds, 0 is default, may be omitted
  fadeOut: 0.3   // time in seconds, 0 is default, may be omitted
};</code></pre>
</figure>


<figure>
  <figcaption>And attached to the button via events</figcaption>
  <pre><code class=language-markup spellcheck=false contenteditable=true>&lt;button id=btn_sample&gt;Sample&lt;/button&gt;</code></pre>
  <pre><code class=language-javascript spellcheck=false contenteditable=true>if (supportsES6) {
  const btn_sample = document.querySelector("#btn_sample);
  if (btn_sample) {
    btn_sample.addEventListener("mouseover", () => {
      Audio.load(sample);
    }, {once:true});
    btn_sample.addEventListener("click", () => {
      Audio.play(sample);
    }, false);
  }
}</code></pre>
</figure>


<h2>To do</h2>
<ul>
  <li>Issue with Safari.</li>
  <li>Use a sound sprite rather than multiple small sound files?</li>
  <li>Use an end of fade event, if it exists.</li>
</ul>
            
          
!
            
              body {
  background-color: #1a1a1a;
  color: #fff;
  font-family: sans-serif;
  line-height: 1.5;
  margin: 1rem;
  position: relative;
  -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;
  -moz-osx-font-smoothing: grayscale;
  background-image: url("data:image/svg+xml;charset=utf8,%3Csvg width='1200' height='256' viewBox='0 0 1200 256' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg'%3E%3Cdefs%3E%3Cfilter id='noise'%3E%3CfeTurbulence type='fractalNoise' baseFrequency='.4'%3E%3C/feTurbulence%3E%3C/filter%3E%3C/defs%3E%3Crect height='256' width='1200' filter='url(%23noise)' opacity='.15'/%3E%3C/svg%3E");
  background-attachment: fixed;
}
h1, h2 {font-weight: 100;}
h2 {margin-top: 3rem;}
h1 > span,
h2 > span {font-size: medium;}
h1 + p {font-size:larger;}
button {
  border: 2px solid #000;
  border-radius: 50px;
  padding: .5rem 1rem;
  font-size: inherit;
  font-weight: bold;
  margin: .5rem .5rem;
  transition: all .3s ease-out;
}
.speak button {
  background-image: radial-gradient(ellipse at center, #FDE900 20% ,#FD8515 80%);
  border-color: #FD8515;
  width: 5.5rem;
  height: 5.5rem;
  box-shadow: 0 4px 4px #000;
}
button:hover,
button:focus {
  box-shadow: 0 4px 8px #000;
  transform: scale(1.15);
  outline: 0;
}
button::-moz-focus-inner { 
  border: 0; 
}
button.-js-clicked {
  animation: pressed-btn .3s ease-out;
}
@keyframes pressed-btn {
  50% {transform: scale(0.85);}
  100% {transform: scale(1.15);}
}
figure {
  max-width: 40rem;
  margin: 2rem auto;
  padding: 1rem;
  border: 1px solid #000;
  background-color: #333;
}
figcaption {font-size:larger;}

ul {
  max-width:34rem;
  margin: 1rem auto;
}
h1, h2, p {
  text-align:center;
}
.speak {
  display: flex;
  max-width: 40rem;
  justify-content: space-around;
  flex-wrap: wrap;
  align-content: center;
  margin:0 auto;
}
            
          
!
            
              var supportsES6 = (function() {
  try {
    new Function("(a = 0) => a"); // Not so evil eval?
    return true;
  }
  catch (err) {
    console.log("No ES6");
    return false;
  }
}());


// button click animation classes
var btn_clicked = (function () {

  "use strict";
  if (!supportsES6) {return}

  const buttons = document.querySelectorAll("button");
  for (const btn of buttons) {

    btn.addEventListener("click", () => {

      btn.addEventListener("animationend", () => {
        btn.classList.remove("-js-clicked");
      }, {once: true});

      btn.classList.add("-js-clicked");
    });

  }
}());


var useSessionStorage = (function () {
  try {
    var mod = new Date().valueOf() + "";
		localStorage.setItem(mod, mod);
		localStorage.removeItem(mod);
		return true;
  } catch (e) {
    console.log("No sessionStorage");
    return false;
  }
}());


// Web Audio API - Fetch, store, play (volume, loop), stop - v1.0 MJF @ websemantics.uk
var Audio = (function () {

  "use strict";
  if (!supportsES6) {return}

  // Test AudioContext availability
  if (!window.AudioContext) {
    if (!window.webkitAudioContext) {
      console.log("Web Audio API is not supported");
      return;
    }
    window.AudioContext = window.webkitAudioContext;
  }
  const audioContext = new AudioContext();
  
  let TO; // a setTimeout used to stop a faded out sound. 

  // base64-arraybuffer - https://github.com/niklasvh/base64-arraybuffer - 2012 Niklas von Hertzen - Licensed under the MIT license.
  const b64_buffer = (function(){

    // Converts arraybuffer to base64 and vice-versa

    const chars = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/";

    // Use a lookup table to find the index.
    const lookup = new Uint8Array(256);
    for (let i = 0; i < chars.length; i++) {
      lookup[chars.charCodeAt(i)] = i;
    }

    const encode = (arraybuffer) => {
      const bytes = new Uint8Array(arraybuffer);
      const len = bytes.length;
      let base64 = "";

      for (let i = 0; i < len; i += 3) {
        base64 += chars[bytes[i] >> 2];
        base64 += chars[((bytes[i] & 3) << 4) | (bytes[i + 1] >> 4)];
        base64 += chars[((bytes[i + 1] & 15) << 2) | (bytes[i + 2] >> 6)];
        base64 += chars[bytes[i + 2] & 63];
      }

      if ((len % 3) === 2) {
        base64 = base64.substring(0, base64.length - 1) + "=";
      } else if (len % 3 === 1) {
        base64 = base64.substring(0, base64.length - 2) + "==";
      }

      return base64;
    };

    const decode =  (base64) => {
      const len = base64.length;
      let bufferLength = base64.length * 0.75;
      let p = 0;
      let encoded1, encoded2, encoded3, encoded4;

      if (base64[base64.length - 1] === "=") {
        bufferLength--;
        if (base64[base64.length - 2] === "=") {
          bufferLength--;
        }
      }

      const arraybuffer = new ArrayBuffer(bufferLength);
      const bytes = new Uint8Array(arraybuffer);

      for (let i = 0; i < len; i+=4) {
        encoded1 = lookup[base64.charCodeAt(i)];
        encoded2 = lookup[base64.charCodeAt(i+1)];
        encoded3 = lookup[base64.charCodeAt(i+2)];
        encoded4 = lookup[base64.charCodeAt(i+3)];

        bytes[p++] = (encoded1 << 2) | (encoded2 >> 4);
        bytes[p++] = ((encoded2 & 15) << 4) | (encoded3 >> 2);
        bytes[p++] = ((encoded3 & 3) << 6) | (encoded4 & 63);
      }

      return arraybuffer;
    };

    return {
      encode: encode,
      decode: decode
    }

  }());



  function _populateAudioContext(track, buffer) {

    if (track.audioSource) {
      audioContext.decodeAudioData(buffer, (decodedData) => {
        track.audioSource.buffer = decodedData;
      });
    }
  }

  function _fetchAudio(track) {

    fetch(track.path)
    .then(response => response.arrayBuffer())
    .then(buffer => {

      if (useSessionStorage) {

        // Convert to Base64 and stuff into sessionStorage for reuse.
        // No check made for available space! Keep samples small, or do a check.
        sessionStorage.setItem(track.path, b64_buffer.encode(buffer));
        console.log("Fetched & stored in sessionStorage: ", track.path);
      }

      return buffer;

    })
    .then(buffer => _populateAudioContext(track, buffer))
    .catch(err => console.log("Fetch " + err,  track.path));
  }

  function preloadAudio(track) {
    if (useSessionStorage && !(track.path in sessionStorage)) {
      _fetchAudio(track);
    }
  }

  function stopAudio(track) {
    if (track.audioSource) {
      clearTimeout(TO);

      // Using disconnect() as replacement for stop() to try to support Safari
      // https://stackoverflow.com/questions/32563298/audiocontext-issue-with-safari
      // track.audioSource.stop();
      track.audioSource.disconnect();

    }
  }

  function fadeOutAudio(track) {

    if (track.canFade && track.fadeOut && track.fadeOut > 0) {

      track.gainNode.gain.setValueAtTime(track.volume, audioContext.currentTime);
      track.gainNode.gain.linearRampToValueAtTime(0, audioContext.currentTime + track.fadeOut);

      track.canFade = false;

      TO = setTimeout(() => {
        stopAudio(track);
      }, track.fadeOut * 1000);

    } else {
      stopAudio(track);
    }
  }

  function _buildTrack(track) {
    track.audioSource = audioContext.createBufferSource();
    track.audioSource.ended = function () {
      // stopAudio(track);
      console.log("Ended: ", track.path);
    };
    track.gainNode = audioContext.createGain();
    track.audioSource.connect(track.gainNode);
    track.gainNode.connect(audioContext.destination);
    track.canFade = true; // used to prevent fadeOut firing twice
  }

  function _getAudio(track) {

    if (useSessionStorage) {

      const b64 = sessionStorage.getItem(track.path);
      if (b64 !== null) {
        const buffer =  b64_buffer.decode(b64);
        console.log("From sessionStorage: ", track.path);
        _populateAudioContext(track, buffer);
        return;
      }
    }

    _fetchAudio(track);
  }

  function _setGain(track) {

    track.volume = (track.volume >= 0) ? track.volume : 0.5;

    if (track.fadeIn && track.fadeIn > 0) {

      track.gainNode.gain.setValueAtTime(0, audioContext.currentTime);
      track.gainNode.gain.linearRampToValueAtTime(track.volume, audioContext.currentTime + track.fadeIn);

    } else {
      track.gainNode.gain.value = track.volume;
    }
  }

  function playAudio(track) {

    stopAudio(track);
    _buildTrack(track);
    _getAudio(track);
    _setGain(track);
    track.audioSource.loop = (track.loop && track.loop == true) || false;
    track.audioSource.start(); // Possibly add sprite positions?
    // console.log("playing: ", track.audioSource);
  }


  // Expose functions:
  return {
    load : preloadAudio,
    play : playAudio,
    stop : stopAudio,
    fade : fadeOutAudio
  }

}());

// Note: Using cross-domain samples requires setting .htaccess to:
// Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"

var noise = {
  path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/noise.6.wav",
  volume: 0.2, // 0 - 1
  loop: true,
  fadeIn: 0.5, // time in seconds
  fadeOut: 1.3 // time in seconds
}

// USAGES:

// Predefine track in JS
/*
var track1 = {
  path : "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/0.mp3"
};
if (supportsES6) {
  Audio.play(track1);
}
*/

// Define track in play call, which may be reused
/*
if (supportsES6) {
  Audio.play(track2 = {
    path : "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/1.mp3",
    volume : 0.125
  });
  setTimeout(() => {
    Audio.play(track2);
  },1000);
}
*/

// Define track in play call, not reuseable
/*
if (supportsES6) {
  Audio.play({
    path : "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/2.mp3",
    volume : 0.125,
    loop : false
  });
}
*/

// Predefine looping track

// var noise = {
//   path : "https://websemantics.uk/audio/noise.5.mp3",
//   volume : 0.125,
//   loop : true
// };


// Define track and pre-load audio to play later
var track4 = {
  path : "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/4.mp3",
  volume : 0.125
}
if (supportsES6) {
  Audio.load(track4);
  // Audio.play(track4);
}


// Speak & Spell audio samples - http://www.maximporges.com/2011/10/08/speak-and-spell-samples/

var alphabet = {
  zero : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/0.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  one : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/1.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  two : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/2.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  three : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/3.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  four : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/4.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  five : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/5.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  six : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/6.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  seven : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/7.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  eight : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/8.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  nine : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/9.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  },
  ten : {
    path: "https://websemantics.uk/audio/speak-and-spell/alphabet/10.mp3",
    volume: 0.125
  }
}
            
          
!
999px
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